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BIRDS

A database in support of a review of the quality of the Mesozoic fossil record of birds, in:
Fountaine, T. R., Benton, M. J., Dyke, G. J. and Nudds, R. L. (2005) The quality of the fossil record of Mesozoic birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B 272, 289-294.

Download the paper as a pdf file and the data base as an Excel file.

The Database

Our assignments of taxa to clades are based on Chiappe & Dyke (2002) and Hope (2002); see Figure 1 in the paper.
Age: standard three-letter codes for the stratigraphic stages are used; the ages in millions of years (Ma) for start and end of the timespan are indicated.
Completeness codings are: 1, single bone; 2, several bones; 3, one skeleton; 4, several skeletons.

Species Age Ma Ma Formation Material Completeness 1st Described Clade
Alexornis antecedens CMP 71 75 Bocana Roja Several bones 2 1976 Enantiornithes
Ambiortus dementjevi VAL-BER 132 144 Khurit Several bones 2 1985 Ornithurae
Anatalavis rex MAA 65 71.3 Hornerstown Two bones 2 1915 Neornithes
Apatornis celer CON 86 89 Niobrara Chalk Many bones 2 1873 Ornithurae
Apsaravis ukhaana CMP 71 83.5 Camels Humps Single specimen 3 2001 Ornithurae
Archaeopteryx bavaria TTH (L) 146 151 Solnhofen Lst Single specimen 3 1993 Archaeopterygidae
Archaeopteryx lithographica TTH (L) 146 151 Solnhofen Lst Single specimen 3 1861 Archaeopterygidae
Archaeopteryx siemensii TTH (L) 146 151 Solnhofen Lst Single specimen 3 1897 Archaeopterygidae
Archaeopteryx sp. TTH (L) 146 151 Solnhofen Lst Three specimens 4 N/A Archaeopterygidae
Asiahesperornis bazhanovi SAN 77 84.7 Eginsai Three bones 2 1991 Ornithurae
Avisaurus archibaldi MAA 65 71.3 Hell Creek Single bone 1 1985 Enantiornithes
Avisaurus gloriae CMP 71 74.1 Two Medicine Single bone 1 1995 Enantiornithes
Baptornis advenus CON 86 89 Niobrara Chalk Single specimen 3 1877 Ornithurae
Baptornis sp. CMP 71 83.5 Judith River Single bone 1 N/A Ornithurae
Boluochia zhengi ALB-APT 99 121 Jiufotang Several bones 2 1995 Enantiornithes
Ceramornis major MAA 65 71.3 Lance Single bone 1 1963 Neornithes
Changchengornis hengdaoziensis BRM 121 127 Chaomidianzi Single specimen 3 1999 Confuciusornithidae
Chaoyangia beishanensis ALB-APT 99 121 Jiufotang Single specimen 3 1993 Enantiornithes
Cimolopteryx maxima MAA 65 71.3 Lance Two bones 2 1963 Neornithes
Cimolopteryx maxima MAA 65 71.3 Hell Creek Single bone 1 2002 Neornithes
Cimolopteryx minima MAA 65 71.3 Lance Single bone 1 1963 Neornithes
Cimolopteryx petra MAA 65 71.3 Lance Single bone 1 2002 Neornithes
Cimolopteryx rara MAA 65 71.3 Lance Several bones 2 1889 Neornithes
Cimolopteryx rara MAA 65 71.3 Lance Several bones 2 2002 Neornithes
Cimolopteryx sp. MAA 65 71.3 Frenchman Single bone 1 2002 Neornithes
Concornis lacustris BRM 121 127 La Huerguina Single specimen 3 1992 Enantiornithes
Confuciusornis dui BRM 122 124 Chaomidianzi Many specimens 4 1999 Confuciusornithidae
Confuciusornis sanctus BRM 122 124 Chaomidianzi Many specimens 4 1995 Confuciusornithidae
Cuspirostrisornis houi ALB-APT 99 121 Jiufotang Very fragmentary 2 1997 Ornithurae
Enaliornis barretti ALB 99 112 Gault (U) Two bones 2 1876 Enantiornithes
Enaliornis sedgwicki ALB 99 112 Gault (U) Single bone 1 1876 Enantiornithes
Enantiornis leali MAA 65 71.3 Lecho Several bones 2 1981 Enantiornithes
Enantiornis martini CON 86 89 Bissektinskaya Very fragmentary 2 1993 Enantiornithes
Enantiornis walkeri CON 86 89 Bissektinskaya Very fragmentary 2 1993 Enantiornithes
Eoalulavis hoyasi BRM 121 127 La Huerguina Single specimen 3 1996 Enantiornithes
Eocathayornis walkeri ALB-APT 99 121 Jiufotang Several bones 2 2002 Enantiornithes
Eoenantiornis buhleri BRM 121 127 Yixian Single specimen 3 1999 Enantiornithes
Eurolimnornis corneti BRM-HAU 121 132 Wealden(equiv) Three bones 2 1986 Neornithes
Gallornis satraeleni NEO 121 144 Auxerre Single bone 1 1931 Neornithes
Gansus yumenensis ALB-BER 99 144 Xiagou Several bones 2 1984 Neornithes
Gargantuavis philoinos MAA 65 71.3 Bastide-Neuve Several bones 2 1998 Ornithurae
Gobipteryx minuta CMP 71 83.5 Djadokhta Several bones 2 1974 Enantiornithes
Graculavus augustus MAA 65 71.3 Lance (U) Single bone 1 1999 Neornithes
Graculavus velox MAA 65 71.3 Hornerstown Single bone 1 1872 Neornithes
Gurilynia nessovi MAA 65 71.3 Nemegt Two bones 2 1999 Indet.
Halimornis thompsoni CMP 71 83.5 Mooreville Several bones 2 2002 Enantiornithes
Hesperornis gracilus CON 86 89 Niobrara Chalk Single bone 1 1898 Ornithurae
Hesperornis regalis CON 86 89 Smoky Hill Several bones 2 1872 Ornithurae
Hesperornis regalis CON 86 89 Niobrara Chalk Many specimens 4 1872 Ornithurae
Hesperornis regalis CMP (L) 71 83.5 Vermilion River Many bones 2 1872 Ornithurae
Hesperornis regalis CMP 71 83.5 Foremost Single bone 1 1872 Ornithurae
Hesperornis regalis MAA 70 72 Bylot Several bones 2 1872 Ornithurae
Hesperornis sp. CMP-TUR 71 93.5 Kanguk Several bones 2 N/A Ornithurae
Horezmavis eocretacea ALB (U) 99 112 Khodzhakul Single bone 1 1983 Neornithes
Iberomesornis romerali BRM 121 127 La Huerguina Single specimen 3 1992 Enantiornithes
Ichthyornis dispar CON 86 89 Niobrara Chalk Single specimen 3 1872 Ornithurae
Ichthyornis sp. CEN 94 99 Belle Fourche Several bones 2 N/A Ornithurae
Ichthyornis sp. TUR (L) 89 93.5 Kaskapau Single bone 1 N/A Ornithurae
Ichthyornis sp. TUR (L) 89 93.5 Mancos Shale Single bone 1 N/A Ornithurae
Ichthyornis sp. CMP (L) 71 83.5 Vermilion River Single bone 1 N/A Ornithurae
indet. BRM-HAU 99 144 La Pedrera Several bones 2 1997 Indet.
indet. CMP 71 83.5 Rio Colorado Several bones 2 1991 Indet.
indet. MAA 65 71.3 Bastide-Neuve Single bone 1 2000 Indet.
indet. MAA 65 71.3 Maastricht Several bones 2 2002 Indet.
indet. MAA 65 71.3 Hornerstown Several bones 2 1987 Indet.
indet. MAA 65 71.3 Hornerstown Single bone 1 1987 Indet.
indet. DAN-MAA 61 71.3 Hornerstown Single bone 1 1987 Indet.
Jeholornis prima ALB-APT 99 121 Jiufotang Single specimen 3 2002 Ornithurae
Judinornis nogontsavensis MAA 65 71.3 Nemegt Single bone 1 1983 Indet.
Kizylkumavis cretacea CON 86 89 Bissektinskaya Single bone 1 1994 Indet.
Kuszholia mengi CON 86 89 Bissektinskaya Several bones 2 1992 Indet.
Laornis edvardsianus MAA 65 71.3 Hornerstown Single bone 1 1870 Neornithes
Largirostornis sexdentoris ALB-APT 99 121 Jiufotang Fragmentary 2 1997 Ornithurae
Lectavis bretincola MAA 65 71.3 Lecho Two bones 2 1993 Enantiornithes
Lenesornis maltshevskyi CON 86 89 Bissektinskaya Several bones 2 1986 Indet.
Liaoningornis longidigitris BRM 121 127 Yixian Several bones 2 1997 Enantiornithes
Liaoxiornis delicatus BRM 121 127 Yixian Single specimen 3 1999 Enantiornithes
Limenavis patagonica MAA (L) 65 71.3 Allen (L) Many bones 2 2001 Ornithurae
Lonchengornis sanyanensis ALB-APT 99 121 Jiufotang Fragmentary 2 1997 Indet.
Londchodytes estesi MAA 65 71.3 Lance (U) Single bone 1 1963 Indet.
Londchodytes pterygius MAA 65 71.3 Lance (U) Single bone 1 1963 Indet.
Longipteryx chaoyangensis ALB-APT 99 121 Jiufotang Single specimen 3 2001 Enantiornithes
Nanantius eos ALB 112 121 Toolebuc Single bone 1 1986 Enantiornithes
Nanantius sp. ALB 112 121 Toolebuc Two bones 2 N/A Enantiornithes
Neogaeornis wetzeli MAA 65 71.3 Quiriquina Single bone 1 1929 Indet.
Neuquenornis volans CMP 71 83.5 Rio Colorado Single specimen 3 1994 Enantiornithes
Noguerornis gonzalezi BRM-HAU 121 132 La Pedrera Single specimen 3 1989 Enantiornithes
Omnivoropteryx sinousaorum ALB-APT 99 121 Jiufotang (U) Single specimen 3 2002 Enantiornithes
Otogornis genghisi BER 137 144 Yijingholuo Several bones 2 1994 Ornithurae
Palaeocursornis corneti BRM-HAU 121 132 Wealden(equiv) Single bone 1 1984 Neornithes
Palaeotringa littoralis MAA 65 71.3 Hornerstown Single bone 1 1870 Neornithes
Palaeotringa littoralis MAA 65 71.3 Lance Single bone 1 2002 Neornithes
Palaeotringa vagans MAA 65 71.3 Hornerstown Single bone 1 1872 Neornithes
Palintropus retusus MAA 65 71.3 Lance Single bone 1 1892 Neornithes
Palintropus sp. CMP 71 83,5 Dinosaur Park Several bones 2 2002 Neornithes
Parahesperornis alexi CON 86 89 Niobrara Chalk Single Specimen 3 1984 Ornithurae
Parascaniornis stensioi CMP 71 83.5 Ivo Single bone 1 1933 Ornithurae
Pasquiaornis hardiei CEN 94 99 Belle Fourche Several bones 2 1997 Ornithurae
Pasquiaornis tankei CEN 94 99 Belle Fourche Many bones 2 1997 Ornithurae
Patagopteryx deferrarisi CMP 71 83.5 Rio Colorado One specimen 3 1992 Ornithurae
Piksi barbarulna CMP 71 74.1 Two Medicine Three bones 2 2002 Indet.
Platanavis nana CON 86 89 Bissektinskaya Several bones 2 1992 Indet.
Protopteryx fengningensis BRM 121 127 Yixian Two specimens 4 2000 Ornithurae
Rahonavis ostromi MAA 65 71.3 Maevarano Many bones 2 1998 Archaeopterygidae
Sapeornis chaoyangensis ALB-APT 99 121 Jiufotang (L) Single Specimen 3 2002 Archaeopterygidae
Sazavis priscia CON 86 89 Bissektinskaya Single bone 1 1989 Indet.
Sinornis santensis ALB-APT 99 121 Jiufotang (L) Several specimens 4 1992 Enantiornithes
Soroavisaurus australis MAA 65 71.3 Lecho Several bones 2 1993 Enantiornithes
Telmatornis priscus MAA 65 71.3 Navesink Several bones 2 1870 Neornithes
Teviornis gobiensis MAA 65 71.3 Nemegt Several bones 2 2002 Neornithes
Torotix clemensi MAA 65 71.3 Lance Single bone 1 1963 Neornithes
Tytthostonyx glauconiticus MAA 65 71.3 Hornerstown Several bones 2 1870 Neornithes
Volgavis marina MAA (U) 65 71.3 Krasnaja Single bone 1 1989 Indet.
Vorona berivotrensis MAA 65 71.3 Maevarano Several bones 2 1996 Archaeopterygidae
Wellnhoferia grandis TTH (L) 146 151 Solnhofen Lst Single specimen 4 2001 Archaeopterygidae
Wyleyia valdensis BRM-HAU 121 132 Wealden Single bone 1 1973 Enantiornithes
Yanornis martini ALB-APT 99 121 Jiufotang One specimen 3 2001 Ornithurae
Yixianornis grabaui ALB-APT 99 121 Jiufotang One specimen 3 2001 Ornithurae
Yungavolucris brevipedalis MAA 65 71.3 Lecho Several bones 2 1993 Enantiornithes
Zhyraornis kashkarovi CON 86 89 Bissektinskaya Several bones 2 1984 Indet.
Zhyraornis logunovi CON 86 89 Bissektinskaya Single bone 1 1992 Indet.