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   Feathers and bird origins
   Feathered ornithischians
Feathers, melanosomes, and the colour of dinosaurs

Until the 1990s, the origin of feathers and dinosaur thermoregulation were highly debated. Famously, Archaeopteryx was the world's oldest bird, the first animal with feathers preserved, and it was evidently a derived theropod dinosaur. Then, in 1996, the compsognathid dinosaur Sinosauropteryx was reported from the Jehol Group of China, with 'protofeathers' preserved. After that, more and more theropod dinosaurs from China were reported with feathers. But did other dinosaurs have feathers, and why did feathers evolve? Two key discoveries answered these questions - an ornithischian dinosaur with diverse feathers, Kulindadromeus, reported in 2014, and before that, the identification of the colour of dinosaur feathers, in 2010.

All dinosaurs had feathers [2014]

Palaeontologists had reported possible feathers in the ornithischians Psittacosaurus and Tianyulong in 2002 and 2009 respectively, but it was uncertain whether these were feathers or some other kind of epidermal structure.

Then, in 2014, a team of palaeontologists from Brussels, Siberia, Bristol, and Cork described a new dinosaur, Kulindadromeus from the Middle Jurassic of Russia, which showed three kinds of feathers and three kinds of scales. What was most amazing was that Kulindadromeus is an ornithischian dinosaur, and a rather primitive one, so it seems likely that all dinosaurs had feathers. This changes our understanding of the thermoregulation of dinosaurs as a whole, and their palaeobiology and success.

Identifying the colour of dinosaur feathers [2010]

The impossible seems to be true: palaeontologists can now tell the colours of fossil feathers - in ancient birds and in dinosaurs! A series of studies by different research groups, including a team from the University of Bristol and the Institute for Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology in Beijing, have shown that fossil feathers reveal unexpected details known before only in modern feathers.

Melanin is a key colouring agent in the skin and hair of modern mammals and the feathers of modern birds. In a series of astonishing recent discoveries, the characteristic melanin-bearing organelles called melanosomes have been reported in the feathers of fossil birds and dinosaurs.

It might seem amazing that the melanosomes, and even perhaps some traces of the melanin, of ancient organisms can survive for millions of years undamaged. But melanin and melanosomes are extremely tough and are not damaged by physical or chemical agents. There is a great deal of evidence for their toughness. Nonetheless, methods of collection and study require care and ingenuity.

Melanosomes are now known in the feathers of some of the earliest birds, as well as a broad range of flesh-eating dinosaurs, from the famous Jehol deposits of China, dated at some 125 million years old, well known for their exceptional fossil preservation. These structures have also been reported from other deposits, including the Cretaceous of Brazil and the Eocene (c. 50 million years ago) of Germany.

Because feathers are such a key feature of birds, these discoveries allow scientists to understand more about the origin of birds and the behaviour of dinosaurs and early birds.

A large team from the Bristol Palaeobiology Group exhibited their work on colour in fossil feathers and insect cuticles at the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition in July 2013. We showed our work to 12,000 visitors. Read the blog. We then took the exhibition to the National Science and Technology Fair in Bangkok in August 2013, where over 1 million visitors saw our work.

Feathers, flight, and the success of birds

Birds are hugely successful today, represented by some 10,000 species, and many biologists would explain their success by their special adaptations to flight. Birds have lightweight skeletons, to save weight, they have powerful wings and wing muscles for flight, and they have a high metabolic rate, fueled by efficient use of oxygen and excellent insulation provided by feathers. But did feathers originate for flight, insulation, or something else? Read more

Because colour determines many aspects of behaviour, these discoveries also allow some statements about camouflage, possible warning colours, and display behaviours in dinosaurs and early birds. Further, these discoveries also open up the possibility of detailed reconstruction of the origin of feathers and hairs at a level of ultrastructural detail not yet dreamt of.

The discovery of colour in dinosaur feathers was announced in January 2010: the press release is here, and the paper is here. You can also see a short movie in which Mike Benton talks about the discovery. This discovery was identified as number 64 out of 100 top science stories in 2010 by Discover Magazine. A nice overview of the whole story, up to 2016, is given by science writer Amber Dance in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA here.

Dicynodon Illustration courtesy of John Sibbick.
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