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The tetrapod fossils from Jehol - lists

The Jehol amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals have drawn most attention, and they have also included the largest numbers of new forms. The plants, invertebrates, and fishes from the Jehol beds include many new species and genera, but these have been perhaps more predictable, or more comparable with materials from elsehwere than have been the tetrapods, the land vertebrates. Numbers of species in each of the major tetrapod groups are listed in the Table below.

Total numbers of species of different major groups of organisms named from the three fossiliferous divisions of the Jehol Group.
Group Dabeigou Formation Yixian Formation Jiufotang Formation
Frogs and salamanders070
Turtles020
Lizards030
Choristoderes041
Pterosaurs0914
Ornithischian dinosaurs082
Sauropod dinosaurs01*
Theropod dinosaurs0213
Birds21512
Mammals0150
TOTALS28532
*Present, but unnamed. Data from Zhou et al. (2003), Benton et al. (2008), and other sources.

The Jehol species in order of being named

The species of dinosaurs, birds and mammals from the three fossiliferous formations of the Jehol Group, listed according to the order of naming. Data is from Zhou et al. (2003), Benton et al. (2008), and other sources. Key:
a Species that are known from both the Yixian and Jiufotang formations.
b Species that are probably not valid, mostly because they were not fully described and documented.
c Species named first from Mongolia, but reported also in the Jehol Group.

Dabeigou Formation (?131-130 Ma), late Hauterivian

Birds (2)

Protopteryx fengningensis Zhang & Zhou, 2000; enantiornithine
Eoconfuciusornis zhengi Zhang, Zhou & Benton, 2008; confuciusornithid

Yixian Formation (130-123 Ma), Barremian to early Aptian

Pterosaurs (9)

Eosipterus yangi Ji & Ji, 1997; ?ctenochasmatid
Dendrorhynchoides curvidentatus Ji, Ji, & Padian, 1999; anurognathid
Haopterus gracilis Wang and Lü, 2001; ornithocheirid
Beipiaopterus chenianus Lü, 2003; ctenochasmatid
Boreopterus cuiae Lü & Ji, 2005; boreopterid
Feilongus youngi Wang, Kellner, Zhou, & Campos, 2005; boreopterid
Cathayopterus grabaui Wang & Zhou, 2006; ctenochasmatid
Gegepterus changi Wang, Kellner, Zhou & Campos, 2007; ctenochasmatid
Ninchengopterus liuae Lü, 2009; pterodactyloid

Dinosaurs (30)

Sinosauropteryx prima Ji Q. & Ji S., 1996; compsognathid
Protarchaeopteryx robusta Ji & Ji, 1997; oviraptorosaurid
Caudipteryx zoui Ji et al., 1998; oviraptorosaurid
Beipiaosaurus inexpectus Xu, Tang & Wang, 1999; therizinosaur
Sinornithosaurus millenii Xu, Wang, & Wu, 1999; dromaeosaurid
Caudipteryx dongi Zhou & Wang, 2000; oviraptorosaurid
Jeholosaurus shangyuanensis Xu et al., 2000; hypsilophodontid
Jinzhousaurus yangi Wang & Xu, 2001; hadrosauroid
Liaoningosaurus paradoxus Xu et al., 2001; ankylosaur
Incisivosaurus gauthieri Xu et al., 2002; oviraptorosaurid
Liaoceratops yanzigouensis Xu, 2002; neoceratopsian
Sinovenator changii Xu et al., 2002; troodontid
Hongshanosaurus houi You, Xu, & Wang, 2003; psittacosaurid
Shenzhousaurus orientalis Ji et al., 2003; ornithomimid
Yixianosaurus longimanus Xu & Wang, 2003; maniraptoran
Dilong paradoxus Xu et al., 2004; tyrannosauroid
Graciliraptor lujiatunensis Xu & Wang, 2004; dromaeosaurid
Huxiagnathus orientalis Hwang et al., 2004; compsognathid
Mei long Xu & Norell, 2004; troodontid
Sinornithosaurus haoiana Liu J. et al., 2004; dromaeosaurid
Sinusonasus magnodens Xu & Wang, 2004; troodontid
Jinfengopteryx elegans Ji et al., 2005; troodontid
Psittacosaurus lujiatunensis Zhou et al., 2006; psittacosaurid
Dongbeititan dongi Wang et al., 2007; titanisauriform
Psittacosaurus major Sereno et al., 2007; psittacosaurid
Sinocalliopteryx gigas Ji et al., 2007; compsognathid
Raptorex kriegsteini Sereno et al., 2009; tyrannosauroid
Tianyulong confuciusi Zheng et al., 2009; heterodontosaurid
Tianyuraptor ostromi Zheng et al., 2009; dromaeosaurid
Xiongguanlong baimoensis Li et al., 2009; tyrannosauroid

Birds (15)

Confuciusornis sanctus Hou et al., 1995a; confuciusornithida
Confuciusornis dui Hou et al., 1999; confuciusornithid
Confuciusornis suni Hou et al., 1998; confuciusornithid
Changchengornis hengdaoziensis Ji & Chiappe 1999; confuciusornithid
Jinzhouornis yixianensis Hou et al., 2002b; confuciusornithidb
Jinzhouornis zhangjiyingia Hou et al., 2002b; confuciusornithidb
Liaoningornis longidigitris Hou, 1996; ornithurine
Liaoxiornis delicatus Hou & Chen, 1999; enantiornithine
Eoenantiornis buhleri Hou et al., 1999; enantiornithine
Longirostravis hani Hou et al., 2004; enantiornithine
Hongshanornis longicresta Zhou & Zhang, 2005; ornithurine
Archaeorhynchus spathula Zhou & Zhang, 2006; ornithurine
Paraprotopteryx gracilis Zheng, Zhang, & Hou, 2007; enantiornithine
Vescornis hebeiensis Zhang et al., 2004; enantiornithine
Zhongornis haoae Gao et al., 2008; sister to Pygostylia

Mammals (15)

Zhangheotherium quinquecuspidens Hu et al., 1997; spalacotheroid
Jeholodens jenkinsi Luo, 1999; triconodont
Repenomamus robustus Li et al., 2000; triconodont
Eomaia scansoria Ji et al., 2002; basal eutherian
Sinobaatar lingyuanensis Hu & Wang, 2002; multituberculate
Gobiconodon zofiae Li et al., 2003; triconodont
Maotherium sinensis Rougier et al., 2003; spalacotherioid
Sinodelphys szalayi Luo et al., 2003; metatherian
Meemannodon lujiatunensis Meng et al., 2005; triconodont
Repenomamus giganticus Hu et al., 2005; triconodont
Akidolestes cifellii Li & Luo, 2006; spalacotherioid
Yanoconodon allini Luo et al., 2007; triconodont
Acristatherium yanensis Hu, Meng, Li & Wang, 2009; basal eutherian
Juchilestes liaoningensis Gao et al., 2009; eutriconodonts
Maotherium asiaticus Ji et al., 2009; spalacotheroid

Jiufotang Formation (123-?120 Ma), early Aptian

Pterosaurs (14)

Chaoyangopterus zhangi Wang & Zhou, 2003; chaoyangopterid
Jidapterus edentus Dong, Sun, & Wu, 2003; chaoyangopterid
Liaoningopterus gui Wang & Zhou, 2003; ornithocheirid
Sinopterus dongi Wang & Zhou, 2003; tapejarid
Sinopterus gui Li, Lü & Zhang, 2003; tapejarid
Eoazhdarcho liaoxiensis Lü & Ji, 2005; chaoyangopterid
Eopteranodon lii Lü & Zhang, 2005; chaoyangopterid
Huaxiapterus jii Lü & Yuan, 2005; tapejarid
Liaoxipterus brachyognathus Dong and Lü, 2005; ?ctenochasmatid
Huaxiapterus corollatus Lü et al., 2006; tapejarid
Istiodactylus sinensis Andres & Qi, 2006; istiodactylid
Huaxiapterus benxiensis Lü et al., 2007; tapejarid
Nemicolopterus crypticus Wang et al., 2008; dsungaripteroid
Shenzhoupterus chaoyangensis Lü, Unwin, Xu & Zhang, 2008; chaoyangopterid

Dinosaurs (5)

Psittacosaurus mongoliensis Osborne, 1923c; psittacosauridc
Psittacosaurus meileyingensis Sereno et al., 1988; psittacosaurid
Microraptor zhaoianus Xu et al., 2000; dromaeosaurid
Microraptor gui Xu et al., 2003; dromaeosaurid
Sinotyrannus kazuoensis Ji et al., 2009; tyrannosauroid

Birds (12)

Cathayornis yandica Zhou et al., 1992; enantiornithine
Sinornis santensis Sereno & Rao, 1992; enantiornithine
Otogornis genghisi Hou & Zhang, 1993; enantiornithine
Boluochia zhengi Zhou, 1995; enantiornithine
Confusiusornis sanctus Hou et al., 1995a; confuciusornithida
Songlingornis linghensis Hou, 1997; ornithurine
Longipteryx chaoyangensis Zhang et al., 2001; enantiornithine
Yanornis martini Zhou & Zhang, 2001; ornithurine
Yixianornis grabaui Zhou & Zhang, 2001; ornithurine
Jeholornis prima Ji et al., 2002; jeholornithid
Sapeornis chaoyangensis Zhou & Zhang, 2002 basal bird Pengornis houi Zhou et al., 2008; enantiornithine

Literature cited

  • Benton, M.J., Zhou, Z.-H., Orr, P.J., Zhang, F.-C. & Kearns, S.L. 2008. The remarkable fossils from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of China and how they have changed our knowledge of Mesozoic life. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 119, 209-228.
  • Zhou, Z., Barrett, P.M. & Hilton, J. 2003. An exceptionally preserved Lower Cretaceous ecosystem. Nature 421, 807-814.

Dicynodon Illustration courtesy of John Sibbick.
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