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Anderson, J.S. (2001) The phylogenetic trunk: maximal inclusion of taxa with missing data in an analysis of the Lepospondyli. Systematic Biology, 50, 170-93.

Bossy, K. A., & Milner, A. C. (1998) Order Nectridea. In Encyclopedia of Paleoherpetology, Part 1: Lepospondyli (P. Wellnhofer, ed.). Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munchen. p.73-132.

Benton, M. J. (2005) Vertebrate Palaeontology (3rd Edition). Blackwell publishing, Oxford.

Braddy, S. J., Morrissey, L. B. & Yates, A. M. (2003) Amphibian swimming traces from the Lower Permian of southern New Mexico. Palaeontology, 46, 671-683.

Cruickshank, A.R.I. & Skews, B.W. (1980) The functional significance of nectridean tabular horns (Amphibia: Lepospondyli). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 209, 513-37.

Lee, M. S. Y. & Anderson, J. S. (2006) Molecular clocks and the origin(s) of modern amphibians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 40, 635-639.

Milner, A.C. (1980) A review of Nectridea (Amphibia). In The Terrestrial Environment and the Origin of Land Vertebrates (ed. A.L. Panchen), Systematics Association Special Volume, 15. Academic Press, London. p.439-96

Milner, A. R. (1988) The relationships and origin of the living amphibians. In The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods (ed.M. J. Benton). Clarendon Press, Oxford. p.59-102.

Olson, E.C. (1950) Diplocaulus; a study in growth and variation. Fieldiana, Geology Series, 11, 55-154.

Rinehart, L.F. & Lucas, S. G. (2001) A statistical analysis of a growth series of the Permian nectridean Diplocaulus magnicornis showing two-stage ontogeny. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 21, 803-806.

Ruta, M., Coates, M. I. & Quicke, D. L. J. (2003) Early tetrapod relationships revisited. Biological Review, 78, 251-345.F

Thayer, D. W. (1985) New Pennsylvanian Lepospondyl Amphibians from the Swisshelm Mountains, Arizona. Journal of Paleontology, 59, 684-700.

Vallin, G. & Laurin, M. (2004) Cranial morphology and affinities of Microbrachis, and a reappraisal of the phylogeny and lifestyle of the first amphibians. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24, 56–72.


Two very good books that I would recommend to anyone interested in the evolution of early amphibians, tetrapods and the emergence of vertebrates on to land are:

Clark, J.A. (2002) Gaining Ground: the Origin and Evolution of Tetrapods. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

Zimmer, C. (1999) At the Water’s Edge. Touchstone, New York.


Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil. Scientific Publishers of the Encyclopedia of Paleoherpetology, a primary reference for these pages. 

Tree of life. Very large and continually growing resource for the whole tree of life; from Bacteria to Man.

Ambhibia Fossil Group website. The amphibian section of the Fossil Groups website.

Temnospondyl Fossil Group website. The Temnospondyl section of the Fossil Groups website.

Back to the Nectridean index.
Major Subgroups of the Nectrideans.
Anatomy and Behaviour.
Fossil Record.
Modern Forms.

Author: Iain McIntyre
Last updated:19/11/2006
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