University of Bristol logo Fossil group banner, with title and coposite picture of fossils

Literature and web links


Toby White, the webmaster at and wikipedia for copyright permission, also Liz Loeffer for access to the University of Bristol University teaching collection and Professor Benton for permission to reproduce his asteroid morphology diagram.

Further Reading:

Benton, M. and Harper, D. 1997. Basic Palaeontology. Addison Wesley Longman, pp 132-155

Blake, D. B. 1987. A classification and phylogeny of post-Paleozoic sea stars (Asteroidea: Echinodermata). Journal of Natural History, 21, 481-528.

Clarkson, E. N. K. 2001. Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution. Blackwell Science, pp 262-317.

David, B. and Mooi, R. 1997. Major events in the evolution of echinoderms viewed by the light of embryology. In Echinoderms: San Francisco (R. Mooi and M. Telford, eds.). Balkema, Rotterdam. In press.

Littlewood, D. T. J., Smith, A. B., Clough, K. A. and Emson, R. H. 1997. The interrelationships of the echinoderm classes: morphological and molecular evidence. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 61, 409-438.

Sumrall, C. and J. Sprinkle. 1997. Phylogenetic analysis of living Echinodermata based on primitive fossil taxa. In Echinoderms: San Francisco (R. Mooi and M. Telford, eds.). Balkema, Rotterdam. In press.


Web links to geological localities

Web links to geological timescales

Web links to photo origin web sites

Web links to the University of Bristol related sites:

Web links:


continue to author or return to the glossary


Author: Elizabeth Sweet
Last updated: 22nd November 2005
Return to Fossil groups home page


Websites produced by students on the MSc Palaeobiology programme in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Bristol for academic year 2005-6