All dinocephalians became extinct towards the end of the Permian leaving no modern forms. The reasons for this extinction are not clear, but some suggest they were outcompeted by the more efficient herbivorous anomodonts and carnivorous theriodonts. Other suggestions include disease or sudden climatic change.

Sadly their extinction marked the end of some of the most interesting prehistoric creatures on Earth, only to be replaced by the much smaller dicynodonts and thericodonts.