The dinocephalians or the “terrible-headed” are a diverse group of mammal-like reptiles that flourished during the Upper Permian. They formed a major part of the earliest therapsid fauna of Russia and South Africa, with larger forms dominating the terrestrial fauna of the earlier part of the Late Pemian, until becoming extinct towards the end of the Permian.

Dincocephalians were often very large animals, including carnivorous and herbivorous forms and many types displayed significantly thickened skull bones probably used for head butting.

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The carnivorous Titanophoneus potens or 'potent titanic murderer'. Picture used with the permission of Kelly Taylor.

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