(figure used with permission from Jeff Shultz)

Literature and web links




Almond, J. E. (1985). The Silurian-Devonian fossil record of the Myriapoda. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, series B, 309, 227-237

Baker, A. N. (1974). Some aspects of the economic importance of millipedes. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, 32, 621-628.

Enghoff, H. 1984. Phylogeny of millipedes - a cladistic analysis. Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 22:8-26.

Enghoff, H., W. Dohle, and J. G. Blower. 1993. Anamorphosis in millipedes (Diplopoda)- the present state of knowledge with some developmental and phylogenetic considerations. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 109:103-234.

Hopkin, S. P. and H. J. Read. 1992. The Biology of Millipedes. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Kime, R. D. and S. I. Golovatch. 2000. Trends in the ecological strategies and evolution of millipedes (Diplopoda). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 69:333-349.

Shear, W. A. 1998. The fossil record and evolution of the myriapods. Pages 211-220 in Arthropod Relationships. Systematics Association Special Volume Series 55. R. A. Fortey and R. H. Thomas, eds. Chapman & Hall, London.

Shear, W. A. 1999. Millipeds. American Scientist 87:232-239.

Sierwald, P., W. A. Shear, R. M. Shelley, and J. E. Bond. 2003. Millipede phylogeny revisited in the light of the enigmatic order Siphoniulida. Journal of Zoological Systematics & Evolutionary Research 41(2):87-99.

Wilson HM, Anderson LI. (2004). Morphology and taxonomy of Paleozoic millipedes (Diplopoda : Chilognatha : Archipolypoda) from Scotland. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 169-184.


Web links

Captive care and breeding of Giant millipedes; http://www.key-net.net/users/swb/pet_arthropod/mill.htm

Keeping Giant African millipedes as pets (includes sections on other pets); http://exoticpets.about.com/cs/centipedes/a/millipedes.htm

Department of entomology - North Carolina Cooperation Extension - Controlling millipede pests; http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/ent/notes/Urban/millipedes.htm

Photo's of millipedes and other arthropods; http://www.spidy.goliathus.com/english/galerie-mnohonozky.php

Kendall Bioresearch Station; http://www.kendall-bioresearch.co.uk/millip.htm

Millipedes, centipedes and pill bugs; http://www.backyardnature.net/1000legs.htm

Iowa University Millipedes; http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/iiin/mmilliped.html

Gordon's Millipede (Diplopoda) Page; http://www.earthlife.net/insects/diplopoda.html#12