Location: British Columbia
Age: Middle Cambrian (505 Ma)
REFERENCES (* marked references are excellent non-technical introductions into the Burgess Shale; nonmarked references are technical reading meant for the most enthusiastic readers)
Allison, P.A. and Briggs, D.E.G. 1993. Burgess Shale biotas Burrowed away. Lethaia 26, 184-185.
Allison, P.A. and Brett, C.E. 1995. In-situ benthos and paleo-oxygenation in the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, British-Columbia, Canada. Geology 23, 1079-1082.
Aronson, R.B. 1992. Decline of the Burgess Shale fauna Ecologic or taphonomic restriction. Lethaia 25, 225-229.
Briggs, D.E.G., Fortey, R.A., and Wills, M.A. 1992. Morphological disparity in the Cambrian. Science 256, 1670-1673.
*Briggs, D.E.G., Erwin, D.H., and Collier, F.J. 1994. The Fossils of the Burgess Shale. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Budd, G.E. and Jensen, S. 2000. A critical reappraisal of the fossil record of the bilaterian phyla. Biological Reviews 75, 253-295.
Conway Morris, S. 1986. The community structure of the Middle Cambrian Phyllopod bed (Burgess Shale). Palaeontology 29, 423-467.
Conway Morris, S. 1989. Burgess Shale faunas and the Cambrian explosion. Science 246, 339-346.
Conway Morris, S. 1992. Burgess Shale-type faunas in the context of the Cambrian explosion A Review. Journal of the Geological Society of London 149, 631-636.
Conway Morris, S. 1993. The fossil record and the early evolution of the Metazoa. Nature 361, 219-225.
*Conway Morris, S. 1998. The Crucible of Creation: The Burgess Shale and the Rise of Animals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
*Conway Morris, S. 1998. Showdown on the Burgess Shale The Challenge. Natural History 107, 48-55.
*Conway Morris, S. and Whittington, H.B. 1979. Animals of the Burgess Shale. Scientific American 241, 122-133.
Conway Morris, S. and Whittington, H.B. 1985. Fossils of the Burgess Shale. Geological Survey of Canada, Miscellaneous Reports 43, 1-31.
Dzik, J. 1993. Early metazoan evolution and the meaning of its fossil record. Evolutionary Biology 27, 339-386.
Fletcher, T.P. and Collins, D.H. 1998. The Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale and its relationship to the Stephen Formation in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 35, 413-436.
Foote, M. 1997. The evolution of morphological diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28, 129-152.
*Foote, M. 1998. Book Review: The Crucible of Creation: The Burgess Shale and the Rise of Animals. Science 280, 2068-2069.
Foote, M. and Gould, S.J. 1992. Cambrian and Recent morphological disparity. Science 258, 1816-1816.
*Fortey, R.A. 1998. Shock Lobsters: Book Review: The Crucible of Creation: The Burgess Shale and the Rise of Animals. London Review of Books 20(19).
Fortey, R.A., Briggs, D.E.G., and Wills, M.A. 1996. The Cambrian evolutionary 'explosion': Decoupling cladogenesis from morphological disparity. Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society 57, 13-33.
*Gould, S.J. 1989. Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History. W.W. Norton, New York.
Gould, S.J. 1991. The disparity of the Burgess Shale arthropod fauna and the limits of cladistic analysis why we must strive to quantify morphospace. Paleobiology 17, 411-423.
Gould, S.J. 1993. How to analyze Burgess Shale disparity: A Reply. Paleobiology 17, 522-523.
*Gould, S.J. 1998. Showdown on the Burgess Shale The Reply. Natural History 107, 48-55.
*Levinton, J.S. 1992. The big bang of animal evolution. Scientific American 267, 84-91.
McShea, D.W. 1993. Arguments, tests, and the Burgess Shale A commentary on the debate. Paleobiology 19, 399-402.
McShea, D.W. 1998. Possible largest-scale trends in organismal evolution: Eight "live hypotheses". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 29, 293-318.
Orr, P.J., Briggs, D.E.G., and Kearns, S.L. 1998. Cambrian Burgess Shale animals replicated in clay minerals. Science 281, 1173-1175.
Petrovich, R. 2001. Mechanisms of fossilization of the soft-bodied and lightly armored faunas of the Burgess Shale and of some other classical localities. American Journal of Science 301, 683-726.
Ridley, M. 1993. Analysis of the Burgess Shale. Paleobiology 19, 522-523.
Thomas, R.D.K., Shearman, R.M., and Stewart, C.W. 2000. Evolutionary exploitation of design options by the first animals with hard skeletons. Science 288, 1239-1242.
Waggoner, B.M. 1996. Phylogenetic hypotheses of the relationships of arthropods to Precambrian and Cambrian problematic fossil taxa. Systematic Biology 45, 190-222.
*Whittington, H.B. 1985. The Burgess Shale. New Haven, Yale University Press.
Wills, M.A., Briggs, D.E.G., and Fortey, R.A. 1994. Disparity
as an evolutionary index a comparison of Cambrian and Recent
arthropods. Paleobiology 20, 93-130.
Lane, A. 1999. Palaeofiles: The Cambrian Explosion. Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Bristol, UK. (Though somewhat out of date, this is the best site on the Cambrian explosion I have ever seen on the Internet. Highly recommended. Congratulations to Abigail Lane for a truly outstanding and scholarly website).
Section author: Alexei A. Rivera
This section is part of a Fossil Lagerstätten
web site which has been built up as a result of the efforts of
the 2002-3 MSc
Palaeobiology class in the Department of Earth Sciences at
University of Bristol, as part of a course in Scientific Communication.
Department of Earth Sciences
University of Bristol
Wills Memorial Building