Arthropod trackways Chelicerate trackways

Kouphichnium (schematic drawing)

Trackway of great variability; series consisting of four pairs of oval tracks and one pair of digitate, birdlike 'pusher' tracks. Originally misinterpreted as amphibian, bird or even dinosaur trackways, now known to be produced by horseshoe crabs. Particularly abundant in coal measures.


Long, continuous trackways, two parallel rows of tracks arranged in groups of three; between them undulating dragmark occasionally present. Groups of tracks arranged in oblique, straight or triangular formation, grading between the two is possible. Scorpions are the producers, these trackways are widespread by the Lower Permian.


Large trackway with opposed, symmetrical rows of leg impressions; median keel bordered by longitudinal club-shaped impressions. A crawling track of large eurypterids, an extinct group of chelicerates. Many ichnospecies are rare, except for Palmichnium antarcticum which is very abundant in several localities.


Trackways of arachnids; tracks arranged in four groups, alternating. Two anterior tracks are didactyle, two posterior are unidactyle. Producer employed an out-of-phase, alternating gait.