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References and Credits

The literature on both fossil and extant whales is extensive. Some of the most informative sources include:

Archaeoceti

  • The Evolution of Whales by Edward T. Babinski, based on November 2001 National Geographic Magazine "The evolution of whales" and revised by Prof. J. G. M. Thewissen.
  • Gingerich, P. D., ul Haq, M., Zalmout, I. S., Khan, I. H. and Malkani, M. S. 2001. Origin of Whales from Early Artiodactyls: Hands and Feet of Eocene Protocetidae from Pakistan. Science, 293, 2239-2242. The original paper describing the crucial ankle bones, linking Cetacea to Artiodactyla.
  • Professor P. D. Gingerich's web site, University of Michigan. An excellent web site on ancient whales and his own research.
  • Thewissen, J. G. M. (editor) 1998. The Emergence of Whales, Evolutionary Patterns in the Origin of Cetacea. Plenum, New York. 491 pp. This multi-authored book, although written before some of the major discoveries shedding light on whale origins were made still provides an excellent overview of cetacean palaeobiology.
  • Thewissen, J. G. M. and E. M. Williams. 2002. The early radiations of Cetacea (Mammalia): Evolutionary pattern and developmental correlations. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 33, 73-90. This paper gives a valuable overwiev of the current state of fossil cetacean research.
  • Prof. J. G. M. Thewissen's web site, The Thewissen Lab, Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy. Another excellent web site on ancient whales, including a link to the Digital Library of Dolphin Development.

Odontoceti and Mysticeti

  • The Australian Museum's online Cetacean FAQs.
  • The BBC's web site on sea life.
  • Dalton, R. 2006. More whale strandings are linked to sonar. Nature, 440, 593
  • Gourley, L., Marine biology mystery solved, Harvard Gazette, 15th December,2006. This article explores the function of the enigmatic narwhal's tusk.
  • May-Calado, L. and Agnarsson, I. 2005. Cytochrome b and Bayesian inference of whale phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 38, 244-354. A technical reassessment of whale phylogenetic relationships.
  • Reeves, R. R., Stewart, B. S., Clapham, P. J. and Powell, P. A. 2002. Sea Mammals of the World - A complete Guide to Whales, Dolphins, Seal Lions ans Sea Cows.A & C Black, London, 527 pp. An excellent and well-illustrated guide wo whales and other marine mammals.
  • The species guide of the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society (WDCS).

Picture Sources

  • The Evolution of Whales by Edward T. Babinski, based on November 2001 National Geographic Magazine "The evolution of whales" and revised by Prof. J. G. M. Thewissen.
  • Carl Buell's web site showing his truly excellent drawings of prehistoric animals.
  • Professor P. D. Gingerich's web site, University of Michigan.
  • The Photo library of the U. S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  • The Photo library of the U. S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory.
  • Prof. J. G. M. Thewissen's web site, The Thewissen Lab, Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy.
  • Whales on the net - Discovering Whales.
  • Wikipedia - The online encyclopedia.