Michael J. Benton (2004)

Classification of the vertebrates

The classification given below is a 'conservative cladistic' scheme based upon the cladograms described in this book. The hierarchical ranking (indenting) of the group names gives an indication of the ranking of taxa in the cladogram. There have been proposals recently to avoid naming the ranks of taxa (e.g. 'Placodermi', 'Dipnoi'), but rank names are used here (e.g. 'Class Placodermi', 'Order Dipnoi') in order to provide a broad marker to the relative positions of clades within the hierarchical scheme. Further, there is a debate about the use of traditional group names, such as Archosauria or Mammalia, whether they should be used in an inclusive sense to indicate the clade that is closest to the original definition of the name, or in an exclusive sense to refer to the crown-group clade only, that is the minimal clade defined by the closest common ancestor of all living forms. The former usage is employed here. Fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals are tabulated separately. All groups named below are monophyletic, except for a very small number of commonly used paraphyletic group names (marked *). All groups have living members, unless they are marked †. Where the sequencing of groups is uncertain, they are indicated as sedis mutabilis.

       Classifications are based on overviews by Forey and Janvier (1993) and Donoghue et al. (2000) for agnathans; Goujet (2001) and Smith and Johanson (2003) for placoderms; de Carvalho (1996) for chondrichthyans; Gardiner et al. (1996) and Johnson and Patterson (1996) for actinopterygians; Zhu and Schultze (2001) for sarcopterygians; Ruta et al. (2003) and Yates and Warren (2000) for amphibians; Benton (1993b, 1999a), OŐKeefe (2002), Rauhut (2003), and Lee et al. (2004) for reptiles; Chiappe (2002) and Cracraft et al. (2004) for birds; and Luo et al. (2002) and McKenna and Bell (1997) for mammals.

Classification of the fishes
Classification of the amphibians
Classification of the reptiles
Classification of the birds
Classification of the mammals



Phylum Chordata

       Subphylum Tunicata (Urochordata)

       Subphylum Cephalochordata (Acraniata)

       Subphylum Vertebrata (Craniata)

             *Class 'Agnatha'

                    Subclass Myxinoidea

                    Subclass Petromyzontida

                    †Subclass Conodonta

                    †Subclass Pteraspidomorphi

                           Order Astraspida

                           Order Arandaspida

                           Order Heterostraci

                    †Order Anaspida

                    †Order Thelodonti

                    Subclass unnamed

                           †Order Osteostraci

                           †Order Galeaspida

                           †Order Pituriaspida

                    Infraphylum Gnathostomata

                           †Class Placodermi

                                 Order Acanthothoraci

                                 Order Rhenanida

                                 Order Antiarchi

                                 Order Petalichthyida

                                 Order Ptyctodontida

                                 Order Arthrodira

                           Class Chondrichthyes

                                 Subclass Elasmobranchii

                                        Infraclass unnamed

                                               †Family Cladoselachidae

                                               †Order Symmorida

                                                     Family Symmoriidae

                                                     Family Falcatidae

                                                     Family Stethacanthidae

                                        †Order Eugeneodontiformes sedis mutabilis

                                        †Order Petalodontiformes sedis mutabilis

                                        Infraclass Euselachii

                                               †Order Xenacanthiformes

                                               †Order Ctenacanthiformes

                                               †Order Hybodontiformes

                                               Cohort Neoselachii

                                                     Division Galeomorphii

                                                            Order Heterodontiformes

                                                            Order Orectolobiformes

                                                            Order Lamniformes

                                                            Order Carcharhiniformes

                                                     Division Squalea

                                                            Order Hexanchiformes

                                                            Order Echinorhiniformes

                                                            Order Squaliformes

                                                            Superorder Hypnosqualea

                                                                   Order Squatiniformes

                                                                   Order Pristiophoriformes

                                                                   Superorder Batoidea

                                  Subclass Subterbranchialia

                                        †Order Iniopterygiformes

                                        †Order Chondrenchelyiformes

                                        Superorder Holocephali

                           †Class Acanthodii

                           Class Osteichthyes


                                 Subclass Actinopterygii

                                        †Family Cheirolepididae

                                        Infraclass Cladistia

                                               †Family Gildayichthyidae

                                               Family Polypteridae

                                        Infraclass Actinopteri

                                               †Family Mimiidae

                                               †Family Stegotrachelidae

                                               †Family Ptycholepididae

                                               †Family Amblypteridae

                                               †Superfamily unnamed

                                                     Family Redfieldiidae

                                                     Family Amphicentridae

                                                     Family Dorypteridae

                                               Superdivision Chondrostei

                                                     †Family Birgeriidae

                                                     †Family Chondrosteidae

                                                     Order Acipenseriformes

                                                            Family Acipenseridae

                                                            Family Polyodontidae

                                                     †Order Palaeonisciformes

                                                     †Order Saurichthyiformes

                                                     †Order Pholidopleuriformes

                                                     †Order Perleidiformes

                                                     †Order Peltopleuriformes

                                               Superdivision Neopterygii

                                                            Divison Ginglymodi

                                                                   Family Lepisosteidae

                                                            †Order unnamed

                                                                   Family Semionotidae

                                                                   Family Dapedidae

                                                            †Family Macrosemiidae

                                                            †Order Pycnodontiformes

                                                            Division Halecostomi

                                                                   Subdivision Halecomorphi

                                                                         Family Amiidae

                                                                         †Family Parasemionotidae

                                                                   Subdivision Teleostei

                                                                         †Family Pachycormidae

                                                                         †Family Aspidorhynchidae

                                                                         †Family Pholidophoridae

                                                                         †Family Leptolepididae

                                                                         †Family Ichthyodectidae

                                                                         Infradivision Osteoglossomorpha

                                                                                Order Osteoglossiformes

                                                                         Infradivision Elopocephala

                                                                                Cohort Elopomorpha

                                                                                       Order Anguilliformes

                                                                                Cohort Clupeocephala

                                                                                       Subcohort Otocephala

                                                                                             Division Clupeomorpha

                                                                                                    †Order Ellimmichthyiformes

                                                                                                    Order Clupeiformes

                                                                                             Division Ostariophysi

                                                                                                           Order Gonorhynchiformes

                                                                                                           Order Cypriniformes

                                                                                                           Order Characiformes

                                                                                                           Order Siluriformes

                                                                                                           Order Gymnotiformes

                                                                                       Subcohort Euteleostei

                                                                                             Order Salmoniformes

                                                                                             Infracohort Neognathi

                                                                                                    Order Esociformes

                                                                                                    Division Neoteleostei

                                                                                                           Order Stomiiformes

                                                                                                           Subdivision Eurypterygii

                                                                                                                 Order Aulopiformes

                                                                                                                 Infradivision Ctenosquamata

                                                                                                                        Order Myctophiformes

                                                                                                                        Order Polymixiiformes

                                                                                                                        Superorder Paracanthopterygii

                                                                                                                               Order Percopsiformes

                                                                                                                               Order Ophidiiformes

                                                                                                                               Order Lophiiformes

                                                                                                                               Order Gadiformes

                                                                                                                        Superorder Acanthopterygii

                                                                                                                               Series Atherinomorpha

                                                                                                                                     Order Atheriniformes

                                                                                                                                     Order Cyprinodontiformes

                                                                                                                                     Order Beloniformes

                                                                                                                               Series Percomorpha

                                                                                                                                     Order Beryciformes

                                                                                                                                     Order Lampridiformes

                                                                                                                                     Order Zeiformes

                                                                                                                                     Order Gasterosteiformes

                                                                                                                                     Order Dactylopteriformes

                                                                                                                                     Order Scorpaeniformes

                                                                                                                                     Order Perciformes

                                                                                                                                     Order Pleuronectiformes

                                                                                                                                     Order Tetraodontiformes

                                 Subclass Sarcopterygii

                                        Order Dipnoi

                                        Infraclass Crossopterygii

                                               †Order Porolepiformes

                                               Superorder unnamed

                                                     †Order Onychodontida

                                                     Order Actinistia

                                        Infraclass Tetrapodomorpha

                                               †Order Rhizodontida

                                               Superorder Osteolepidida

                                                     †Order Osteolepiformes

                                                     †Family Tristichopteridae

                                                     †Order Panderichthyida

                                                     Superclass Tetrapoda




Superclass Tetrapoda

       [†Family Elginerpetontidae]

       †Family Ichthyostegidae

       †Family Acanthostegidae

       †Family Tulerpetontidae

       †Family Colosteidae

       †Family Crassigyrinidae

       †Family Whatcheeriidae

       †Family Baphetidae

       Class Batrachomorpha/ Amphibia

             *Order 'Temnospondyli'

                    †Family Trimerorhachidae

                    †Suborder Dvinosauria

                    †Family Archegosauridae

                    †Family Rhinesuchidae

                    †Suborder Capitosauria

                           Family Mastodonsauridae

                           Family Capitosauridae

                    †Suborder Trematosauria

                           Family Trematosauridae

                           Family Metoposauridae

                           Family Plagiosauridae

                           Family Rhytidosteidae

                           Family Brachyopidae

                           Family Chigutisauridae

                    †Family Dendrerpetontidae

                    †Family Eryopidae

                    †Family Dissorophidae

                    *†Family 'Branchiosauridae'

                    †Family Amphibamidae

                    Infraclass Lissamphibia

                           †Family Albanerpetontidae

                           Order Gymnophiona

                           Order Urodela

                           Order Anura

       Class Unnamed

             †Superorder Lepospondyli

                    Order Microsauria

                    Order Nectridea

                    Order A•stopoda

             Superorder Reptiliomorpha

                    *†Order 'Anthracosauria'

                    †Order Seymouriamorpha

                    †Order Diadectomorpha

                    Series Amniota





Series Amniota

       Class Synapsida

             *Order Pelycosauria

                    Family Eothyrididae

                    Family Caseidae

                    Family Varanopseidae

                    Family Ophiacodontidae

                    Family Edaphosauridae

                    Family Sphenacodontidae

                    Order Therapsida

                           †Suborder Biarmosuchia

                           †Suborder Dinocephalia

                           †Suborder Dicynodontia

                           †Suborder Gorgonopsia

                           Suborder Cynodontia

                                 †Family Procynosuchidae

                                 †Family Galesauridae

                                 †Family Cynognathidae

                                 †Family Diademodontidae

                                 †Family Chiniquodontidae

                                 †Family Tritylodontidae

                                 †Family Tritheledontidae

                                 Class Mammalia (see below)

       Class Sauropsida

             Subclass Anapsida

                    †Family Mesosauridae

                    †Family Millerettidae

                    †Family Bolosauridae

                    †Family Procolophonidae

                    †Family Pareiasauridae

                    Order Testudines (Chelonia)

                           †Family Proganochelyidae

                           †Family Australochelidae

                           Suborder Pleurodira

                           Suborder Cryptodira

                                 Superfamily Baenoidea

                                 †Family Meiolaniidae

                                 Superfamily Chelonioidea

                                 Superfamily Trionychoidea

                                 Superfamily Testudinoidea

             †Family Captorhinidae

             †*Family Protorothyrididae

             Subclass Diapsida

                    †Order Araeoscelidia

                    †Family Weigeltisauridae

                    †Order Younginiformes

                    †Infraclass Ichthyosauria sedis mutabilis

                    Infraclass Lepidosauromorpha

                           †Superorder Sauropterygia

                                 Order Placodontia

                                 Order Nothosauroidea

                                        Suborder Pachypleurosauria

                                        Suborder Nothosauria

                                 Order Plesiosauria

                                        Suborder Plesiosauroidea

                                               Family Cryptoclididae

                                               Family Cimoliasauridae

                                               Family Polycotylidae

                                               Family Elasmosauridae

                                        Suborder Pliosauroidea

                                               Family Rhomaleosauridae

                                               Family Pliosauridae

                           Superorder Lepidosauria

                                 Order Sphenodontida

                                        Family Sphenodontidae

                                        †Family Pleurosauridae

                                 Order Squamata

                                        *Suborder Lacertilia (Sauria)

                                               Infraorder Iguania

                                               Infraorder Gekkota

                                               Infraorder Amphisbaenia

                                               Infraorder Anguimorpha

                                               Infraorder Scincomorpha

                                        Suborder Serpentes (Ophidia)

                    Infraclass Archosauromorpha

                           †Family Trilophosauridae

                           †Family Rhynchosauridae

                           †Order Prolacertiformes

                           Division Archosauria

                                 †Family Proterosuchidae

                                 †Family Erythrosuchidae

                                 †Family Euparkeriidae

                                 Subdivision Crurotarsi

                                        †Family Phytosauridae

                                        †Family Ornithosuchidae sedis mutabilis

                                        †Family Stagonolepididae sedis mutabilis

                                        †Family Rauisuchidae sedis mutabilis

                                        †Family Poposauridae sedis mutabilis

                                        Superorder Crocodylomorpha

                                               †Family Saltoposuchidae

                                               †Family Sphenosuchidae

                                               Order Crocodylia

                                                     †Family Protosuchidae

                                                     Division Mesoeucrocodylia

                                                            †Family Teleosauridae

                                                            †Family Metriorhynchidae

                                                            Subdivision Metasuchia

                                                                   †Family Notosuchidae

                                                                   †Family Sebecidae

                                                                   Infradivision Neosuchia

                                                                         †Family Goniopholididae

                                                                         †Family Dyrosauridae

                                                                         Suborder Eusuchia

                                                                                Family Gavialidae

                                                                                Family Crocodylidae

                                                                                Family Alligatoridae

                                 Subdivision Avemetatarsalia


                                        Infradivision Ornithodira

                                               †Order Pterosauria

                                                     *Suborder Rhamphorhynchoidea

                                                     Suborder Pterodactyloidea



                                               Superorder Dinosauria

                                                     Order Saurischia

                                                            †Family Herrerasauridae

                                                            Suborder Theropoda

                                                                   †Infraorder Coelophysoidea

                                                                   †Infraorder Ceratosauria

                                                                         Family Ceratosauridae

                                                                         Family Abelisauridae

                                                                   Infraorder Tetanurae

                                                                         †Division Carnosauria

                                                                                Subdivision Spinosauroidea

                                                                                       Family Megalosauridae

                                                                                       Family Spinosauridae

                                                                                Subdivision Allosauroidea

                                                                                       Family Allosauridae

                                                                                       Family Carcharodontosauridae

                                                                         Division Coelurosauria

                                                                                †Family Coeluridae

                                                                                Subdivision Maniraptoriformes

                                                                                       †Family Tyrannosauridae

                                                                                       †Family Ornithomimidae

                                                                                       Infradivision Maniraptora

                                                                                             †Family Alvarezsauridae

                                                                                             †Family Therizinosauridae

                                                                                             †Cohort Deinonychosauria

                                                                                                    Family Dromaeosauridae

                                                                                                    Family Troodontidae

                                                                                                    Class Aves (see below)

                                                            †Suborder Sauropodomorpha


                                                                   Family Plateosauridae


                                                                   Family Massospondylidae

                                                                   Infraorder Sauropoda

                                                                         Family Vulcanodontidae

                                                                         Family Omeisauridae

                                                                         Division Neosauropoda

                                                                                Family Cetiosauridae

                                                                                Family Diplodocidae

                                                                                Subdivision Macronaria

                                                                                       Family Camarasauridae

                                                                                       Infradivision Titanosauriformes

                                                                                       Family Brachiosauridae

                                                                                             Cohort Somphospondyli

                                                                                                    Family Euhelopodidae

                                                                                                    Family Titanosauridae

                                               †Order Ornithischia

                                                     Family Pisanosauridae

                                                     Family Fabrosauridae

                                                     Suborder Thyreophora

                                                            Family Scelidosauridae

                                                            Infraorder Stegosauria

                                                            Infraorder Ankylosauria

                                                                   Family Nodosauridae

                                                                   Family Ankylosauridae

                                                     Suborder Cerapoda

                                                            Infraorder Pachycephalosauria

                                                            Infraorder Ceratopsia

                                                                   Family Psittacosauridae

                                                                   Family Protoceratopsidae

                                                                   Family Ceratopsidae

                                                            Infraorder Ornithopoda

                                                                   Family Heterodontosauridae

                                                                   Family Hypsilophodontidae

                                                                   Family Iguanodontidae

                                                                   Family Hadrosauridae





Class Aves

       †Family Archaeopterygidae



       Subclass Pygostylia

             †Family Confuciusornithidae

                    †Order Oviraptorosauria

                    Infraclass Ornithothoraces

                           †Order Enantiornithes

                           Supercohort Ornithomorpha



                                 Cohort Ornithurae

                                        †Order Hesperornithiformes

                                        Subcohort Carinatae

                                               †Order Ichthyornithiformes

                                               Superdivision Neornithes

                                                     Division Palaeognathae

                                                            †Order Lithornithiformes

                                                            Order Ratites

                                                     Division Neognathae

                                                            Subdivision Galloanserae

                                                                   Order Anseriformes

                                                                   Order Galliformes

                                                            Subdivision Neoaves

                                                                   Superorder unnamed ['waterbird assemblage']

                                                                         Infraorder unnamed

                                                                                Order Gruiformes

                                                                                Order Ralliformes

                                                                         Infraorder unnamed

                                                                                Order Pelecaniformes

                                                                                Order Ciconiiformes

                                                                         Infraorder unnamed

                                                                                Order Charadriiformes

                                                                                Order Phoenicopteriformes

                                                                                Order Podicepidiformes

                                                                                Order Falconiformes

                                                                                Order Procellariformes

                                                                                Order Gaviiformes

                                                                                Order Sphenisciformes

                                                                   Order Strigiformes

                                                                   Superorder unnamed

                                                                         Order Apodiformes

                                                                         Order Caprimulgiformes

                                                                   Order Musophagiformes

                                                                   Order Columbiiformes

                                                                   Order Psittaciformes

                                                                   Order Cuculiformes

                                                                   Superorder unnamed ['higher land birds']

                                                                         Order Piciformes

                                                                         Order Coliiformes

                                                                         Order Trogoniformes

                                                                         Order Bucerotiformes

                                                                         Order Coraciiformes

                                                                         Order Passeriformes





Class Mammalia


       †Family Sinoconodontidae

       Subclass Mammaliaformes

             †Family Morganucodontidae

             Infraclass Holotheria

                    †Family Kuehneotheriidae

                    †Order Docodonta

                    Superdivision Australosphenida


Division Monotremata

                    Superdivision Theriimorpha

                           †Order Triconodonta

                           Division Theriiformes

                                 †Order Multituberculata

                                 Superlegion Trechnotheria

                                        †Order Symmetrodonta

                                        Legion Cladotheria

                                               †Superfamily Dryolestoidea


                                               Sublegion Boreosphenida

                                                     †Order Deltatheroida

                                                     Infralegion Theria

Cohort Marsupialia

                                               Magnorder Ameridelphia

                                                     Order Didelphimorphia

                                                            Family Didelphidae

                                                     Order Paucituberculata

                                                            Family Caenolestidae

                                                            †Family Argyrolagidae

                                                            †Family Caroloameghinidae

                                                     Order Sparassodonta

                                                            †Family Borhyaenidae

                                                            †Family Thylacosmilidae

                                               Magnorder Australidelphia

                                                     Order Microbiotheria

                                                     Order Dasyuromorphia

                                                     Order Peramelemorphia

                                                     Order Notoryctemorphia

                                                     Order Diprotodontia

                                                     Cohort Placentalia (Eutheria)

                                        Magnorder Afrotheria

                                                                         Grandorder unnamed

                                                                                Order Tubulidentata

                                                                                Mirorder unnamed

                                                                                Order Tenrecoidea

                                                                                Order Macroscelidea

                                               Grandorder Paenungulata

                                                      Order Hyracoidea

                                                     Mirorder Tethytheria

                                                            Order Sirenia

                                                            Order Proboscidea

                                                                   †Family Moeritheriidae

                                                                   †Family Deinotheriidae

                                                                   Suborder Elephantiformes

                                                                         †Family Mammutidae

                                                                         †Family Gomphotheriidae

                                                                         †Family Stegodontidae

                                                                         Family Elephantidae

                                        Magnorder Xenarthra

                                               Order Cingulata

                                                     †Family Dasypodidae

                                                     †Family Glyptodontidae

                                               Order Pilosa

                                                     Family Myrmecophagidae

                                                     Family Bradypodidae

                                                     †Family Megatheriidae

                                        Magnorder Boreoeutheria

                                               Incertae sedis

                                                     †Order Leptictida

                                                     †Order Anagalida

                                                      †Order Apatemyida

                                                     †Order Taeniodonta

                                                      †Order Tillodontia

                                                     †Order Pantodonta

                                                     †Order Pantolesta

                                               Grandorder Laurasiatheria

                                                     Order Lipotyphla

                                                            Suborder Erinaceomorpha

                                                            Suborder Soricomorpha

                                                     Order Chiroptera

                                                            Suborder Megachiroptera

                                                            Suborder Microchiroptera

                                                                                Mirorder Ferungulata

                                                            †Family Zhelestidae

Superorder Cetartiodactyla

                                                                   †Order Dinocerata

                                                            †Order Arctocyonia

                                                            †Family Mesonychidae

                                                            Order Artiodactyla

                                                                   †Family Dichobunidae

                                                                   Suborder Bunodontia (Suina)

                                                                         †Family Entelodontidae

                                                                         Family Suidae

                                                                         †Family Anthracotheriidae

                                                                         Family Hippopotamidae

                                                                   Suborder Selenodontia

                                                                         Infraorder Tylopoda

                                                                                †Family Merycoidodontidae

                                                                                Family Camelidae

                                                                         Infraorder Ruminantia

                                                                                †Family Hypertragulidae

                                                                                Family Tragulidae

                                                                                Family Antilocapridae

                                                                                Family Giraffidae

                                                                                Family Cervidae

                                                                                Family Moschidae

                                                                                Family Bovidae

                                                            Order Cetacea

                                                                   Suborder Archaeoceti

                                                                   Suborder Odontoceti

                                                                   Suborder Mysticeti

                                                     Order Perissodactyla

                                                            Superfamily Hippomorpha

                                                                   Family Equidae

                                                                   †Family Brontotheriidae

                                                            Suborder Tapiromorpha

                                                                   †Family Chalicotheriidae

                                                                   Superfamily Ceratomorpha

                                                                         Superfamily Tapiroidea

                                                                         Superfamily Rhinoceratoidea

                                                     ?Superorder Bulbulodentata

                                                            †Family Hyopsodontidae

†Superorder Meridiungulata

                                                                   Order Litopterna

                                                                   Order Notoungulata

                                                                   ?Order Astrapotheria

                                                                   ?Order Pyrotheria

                                                     Superorder unnamed

                                                            †Order Creodonta

                                                            Order Carnivora

                                                                   †Family Miacidae

                                                                   Suborder Feliformia

                                                                         †Family Nimravidae

                                                                         Infraorder Aeluroidea

                                                                                Family Viverridae

                                                                                Family Herpestidae

                                                                                Family Hyaenidae

                                                                                Family Felidae

                                                                   Suborder Caniformia

                                                                         Family Canidae

                                                                         Family Ursidae

                                                                          †Family Amphicyonidae

                                                                         Family Mustelidae

                                                                         Family Procyonidae

                                                                         Infraorder Pinnipedia

                                                                                †Family Enaliarctidae

                                                                                Family Otariidae

                                                                                Family Odobenidae

                                                                                †Family Desmatophocidae

                                                                                Family Phocidae

                                                            Order Pholidota

                                               Superorder Archonta

                                                     †Suborder Plesiadapiformes

                                                     Order Primates

                                                            Suborder Strepsirrhini

                                                                   †Infraorder Adapiformes

                                                                   Infraorder Lemuriformes

                                                                         Family Lemuridae

                                                                         Family Indriidae

                                                                         Family Daubentoniidae

                                                                         Family Lorisidae

                                                                         Family Galagidae

                                                            Suborder Haplorhini

                                                                   †Family Omomyidae

                                                                   Family Tarsiidae

                                                                  Suborder Anthropoidea

                                                                         Infraorder Platyrrhini

                                                                                Family Cebidae

                                                                                Family Atelidae

                                                                         Infraorder Catarrhini

                                                                                †Family Oligopithecidae

                                                                                †Family Parapithecidae

                                                                                †Family Propliopithecidae

                                                                                Superfamily Cercopithecoidea

                                                                                       Family Cercopithecidae

                                                                                Superfamily Hominoidea

                                                                                       †Family Proconsulidae

                                                                                       Family Hylobatidae

                                                                                       Family Hominidae

                                                            Order Scandentia

                                                            Order Dermoptera

                                                                   †Family Paromomyidae

                                                                   Family Galeopithecidae

                                               Superorder Glires

                                                     †Family Zalambdalestidae

                                                            Order Rodentia

                                                                   Suborder Sciurognathi

                                                                         †Superfamily Ischyromyoidea

                                                                         Infraorder Sciuromorpha

                                                                         Infraorder Myomorpha

                                                                   Suborder Hystricognathi

                                                                         Infraorder Hystricomorpha

                                                                         Infraorder Phiomorpha

                                                                         Infraorder Caviomorpha

                                                            Order Lagomorpha

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