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   Methods of study
   Origin of dinosaurs
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Summer internships for undergraduates:
At the feet of the dinosaurs

An opportunity for undergraduate students who are keen about palaeontology, and want to develop their career skills. For the past three years we have run a summer research programme, in which students from all over the world (well, UK, USA, Italy, Netherlands) have spent four to twelve weeks working on their own project, learning practical skills, and finishing with a published scientific paper.

Skills you will acquire: Practical skills include sorting and cataloguing fossil collections, learning the relevant scientific terminology, writing formal descriptions and systematic determinations, and photomicroscopy. The most transferable skills are all those involved in turning your work into a publishable paper, which is a demanding piece of organisation, writing, and high-quality technical illustration.


The projects are closely connected, and we are building a solid body of knowledge. Staff teach students, and students teach students and staff, and we do field work and laboratory work together. Discoveries from one project can help all the others, and we work together to understand the fossils and their meanings, and to learn new research methods.

June 2015: From left to right, Tiffany Slater, Laurence Kinnersley, Valentina Rossi, Emma Landon, and Emily Hall enjoying a sunny day of field work on the Triassic-Jurassic boundary at Aust Cliff, near Bristol.

September 2014: Klara Norden (left) and Harry Allard (right) at their microscopes, and Dr Chris Duffin, in the background, speaks to Gareth Coleman and Heather Thiel about their mysterious microfossils.

The students and their projects

Tamara van den Berg worked on the microvertebrate fossils from Tytherington Quarry, north-east of Bristol. She completed this project as part of the requirements for her MSc in Palaeobiology at Bristol in 2011. She was advised and helped in this project by David Whiteside, who completed his PhD on the Tytherington faunas in 1983, and by Remmert Schouten, Preparator in the Palaeobiology laboratories at Bristol. Tamara studied first at Groningen University in the Netherlands, and then came to Bristol to study for her Masters. You can download Tamara's paper here.

Davide Foffa worked on microvertebrate fossils from Durdham Down, Clifton, Bristol, close to the original site of discovery of Thecodontosaurus in the 1830s. He processed sediment from the original 1830s specimens, as well as freshly collected sediment, and found a variety of small reptile bones. Davide studied first at the Università di Pisa in Italy, and then came to Bristol to study for the MSc in Palaeobiology. He is now working on his PhD on fossil crocodiles at the University of Edinburgh. You can download Davide's paper here

Dana Korneisel, an undergraduate from Iowa State University, worked on the Rhaetic microvertebrates from Charton Bay in Devon. Unexpectedly, these tiny fossils were found preserved within burrow systems constructed by shrimps. Field work in Devon showed how the Rhaetic transgression had brought with it a flurry of bone concentrate as well as marine shrimps. The shrimps constructed complex burrow systems on the sea floor, and the bone-rich sediment washed into the burrows, and was even packed and reworked by the shrimps. You can download Dana's paper here.
Bristol undergraduate Catherine Klein worked on a new Triassic fissure site, Woodleaze. She worked on the project in 2013 and 2014, and presented a poster at the annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Comparative Anatomy in York in 2014. Her project was based on collections made some decades ago by David Whiteside and others, and her most exciting discovery was that there was a new species of sphenodontian, which she named Clevosaurus sectumsemper, referring to the 'ever sharp' teeth of the beast. Catherine comes from Luxembourg, and completed the MSci in Palaeontology and Evolution in Bristol in 2015, and is now working on her PhD in Bath. You can download Catherine's paper here. Klara Norden, currently an undergraduate in Bristol, studying for the MSci in Palaeobiology and Evolution, tackled collections from a classic quarry south of Bristol, Marston Road, near Holwell. This site was first mentioned by Charles Moore in his 1867 paper, and it had been used (mistakenly) to try to date a nearby mammal-bearing fissure. During fieldwork in August 2014, we were able to retrace Moore's steps and identify the classic Marston Road Quarry. It had been re-excavated by Mike Curtis in 1983, but is now covered with a tangle of brambles, having been largely obscured by a road-widening scheme in the 1990s. The bonebed produced a unique mix of marine species with remains of some terrestrial reptiles mixed in. You can download Klara's paper here. Harry Allard, an undergraduate student from the University of Exeter, worked on a further Mike Curtis collection, from Manor Farm quarry, near Aust cliff. This quarry was opened in 1995 as a source of materials for motorway construction nearby, and a Rhaetian section was preserved for geologists and enthusiasts to study, as an excellent 'demonstration' section through the entire Penarth Group. The fossil collections came from five distinct levels through the Rhaetian, including the well known basal Westbury Formation bonebed, and four levels higher. Harry was able to make one of the first comparative studies of the succesion of bonebeds, and these show considerable faunal differences through the succession. Harry is now studying for an MSc in Marine biology in Glasgow. You can download Harry's paper here.
Rebecca Lakin, an undergraduate studying Biology at Reading, spent the summer of 2015 working on Rhaetian bonebed samples from Barnhill Quarry and the nearby Chipping Sodbury railway cutting. This was interesting for Rebecca, who was able to put her knowledge of Victorian railways to use to investigate how the samples were taken during building of the track from Swindon to the Severn railway tunnel in 1903. Publications from 1904 and 1938 helped us re-locate the fossil site in Barnhill Quarry, and we did some new fieldwork. You can download Rebecca's paper here. The most long-running project concerns Hampstead Farm Quarry, based on enormous collections made in the 1970s and 1980s by local fossil collector Mike Curtis. So far, we have counted 20,000 specimens, all carefully boxed and labelled, in the collections of Bristol City Museum and Bristol University. Work on this site began in summer 2013, when volunteers Ellen Mears, an undergraduate at the University of Leeds, and Alana Weir, a Bristol undergraduate, began sorting through the materials and writing up the fish teeth, scales and vertebrae. The work continued in summer 2014, when Bristol undergraduates Gareth Coleman, Ellen MacDonald, and Heather Thiel made an overview of the vast collection. We also re-located the site, logged it, and collected twenty bags of bone-rich sediment, which were acid-processed and picked by Caterine Arias-Riesgo, a visiting preparator-in-training, supported by EU Leonardo funds. Finally, Valentina Rossi, a volunteer student from University of Rome in Italy, spent all of summer 2015 drawing together the vast amount of information and drafted the paper. Ellen Mears completed a research MSc in Edinburgh in 2017, and Valentina began her PhD in Cork in early 2016. The paper was finally completed in February 2016 (too many collaborators), and was published in June 2016. You can download the Hampstead Farm paper here.
Tiffany Slater began a project in summer 2015 on some mystery specimens labelled as from boreholes along the M5 motorway north of Bristol. It turns out the six or seven samples came from shallow boreholes made in 2001 and 2002 when gantries were installed. The samples documented several Rhaetian bonebeds in each borehole, and we later found someof the borehole core, and tracked down further records from Geotechnical Engineering, a firm in Gloucester. Tiffany is a United States citizen, and is studying biology at the University of Worcester. Her paper was submitted in April, 2016, and was published in August, 2016. You can download Tiffany's paper here. Emma Landon, who had just graduated with a geology degree from Durham, worked in summer 2015 on samples from localities around Filton and Parkway stations, north of Bristol. Some of the samples were from engineering works in the 1980s and 1990s, and Emma also collected new material. Among her most remarkable finds were some small hooklets from cephalopods, perhaps some of the earliest known. Her paper took a little longer than expected to finish as we had to recruit additional expert authors to help describe some unusual new discoveries of crinoids in association with the bones and teeth - it turns out these are the first crinoids ever found in the British Triassic - quite a find! She began a PhD in Bristol in September 2016, and her paper was published in April, 2017. You can download Emma's paper here. Joseph Flannery Sutherland worked on a very different theme - otoliths from a Wealden bonebed locality. In a break with tradition, we offered some projects on Lower Cretaceous bonebeds in summer 2016. Joseph, who was then a first-year undergraduate, volunteered for a study of otoliths, the ear bones, of bony fishes. Peter Austen, an expert collector on Wealden fossils had assembled dozens of specimens with concentrations of these unusual fossils - they commonly occur in concentrations, being perhaps ejected stomach contents of predators. Joseph wrote up his work in short order, and it has just been published, in June, 2017. You can download Joseph's paper here.

The press releases

The press loves dinosaurs and ancient life, and so the University of Bristol does all it can to promote the efforts of its students. Here are examples of press releases from some of the published projects:

Emma Landon's discovery of the first crinoids and cephalopod hooklets in the British Triassic (May 2017)
Work by Ellen Mears, Valentina Rossi, and others, on the Hampstead Farm locality (June 2016)
Harry Allard's project on the Manor Farm site, near Bristol (October 2015)
Klara Nordén's project on the history and fossils of the Marston Road Rhaetian (August 2015)
Catherine Klein's discovery of a new species of sphenodontian (June 2015)
Dana Korneisel's discovery of unusual burrows on the base of the Rhaetian Transgression, in Devon (January 2015)

The publications

These are the outputs, the scientific publications that mark the endpoint of the achievements of each student.

Tamara Van den Berg (2012)

Davide Foffa (2014)

Dana Korneisel (2015)

Catherine Klein (2015)

Klara Nordén (2015)

Harry Allard (2015)

Rebecca Lakin (2016)

Ellen Mears, Valentina Rossi, and others (2016)

Tiffany Slater (2016)

Emma Landon (2017)

Joseph Flannery Sutherland (2017)


In September 2013, we held a mini-symposium, with contributions from students involved in the summer projects, including Davide Foffa, Catherine Klein, Ellen Mears, and Alana Weir.

In a further symposium in September 2014, talks were given by Catherine Klein, Harry Allard, Gareth Coleman, Ellen Macdonald, Heather Thiel, and Klara Norden to a wider audience, and Dr Chris Duffin came to offer advice and guidance in identifying tricky bones and teeth (see image at the top).

The third conference, in September 2015, included contributions from the summer students, Valentina Rossi, Rebecca Lakin, Tiffany Slater, Emma Landon, and Sophie Chambi-Trowell.

The advisers

The project is supervised by Professor Mike Benton at the University of Bristol, and special advice is provided on the fossil fishes by Dr Chris Duffin and on the reptiles by Dr David Whiteside. Claudia Hildebrandt is curator of the Bristol University collections, and she looks after the specimens and practical microscope work. Dr Tom Davies is Palaeobiology Laboratory Manager, and he provides training and support in acid digestion of rocks and microfossils and microphotography. These five variously help formulate the projects, provide detailed advice and training, and help in enhancing the papers during the write-up phase.

Mike Benton

Chris Duffin

David Whiteside

Claudia Hildebrandt

Tom Davies

Dicynodon Illustration courtesy of John Sibbick.
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