UB EARTH
SCIENCES

Archosauria: Benton in Benton and Clark (1988)

#NEXUS
BEGIN DATA;
 DIMENSIONS NTAX=21 NCHAR=112;
 FORMAT SYMBOLS="0~1" MISSING=9;
 [CHARACTER LIST; characters 1-112 from Benton (taken from original coding sheets); 113-134 from 
 Clark - listed in sequence from Benton & Clark (1988, p. 335 - Crocodylomropha, Unnamed group A; 
 Unnamed group B):
 1. Septomaxilla is absent;
 2. Extra slit-like fenestra between the maxilla and premaxilla;
 3. Movable joint between the maxilla and premaxilla;
 4. Possession of antorbital fenestra;
 5. Antorbital fenestra large and lies in a depression;
 6. Main antorbital fenestra is low in front;
 7. Nasals run forward between nares;
 8. Postfrontal reduced (Evans);
 9. Loss of postfrontal;
 10. Tall orbit with a 'stepped' postorbital/ jugal bar behind;
 11. Lacrimal forms a heavy ridge over the orbit;
 12. Jugal has an anterior process between the antorbital fenestra and orbit;
 13. Posterior border of lower temporal fenestra is bowed (Evans);
 14. Lower temporal fenestra is reduced in size and triagnular in shape;
 15. Squamosal reduced and descending ramus gracile (Gauthier);
 16. Short descending process of squamosal and tall quadratojugal that contacts postorbital (Clark);
 17. Postparietals are absent;
 18. Postparietals fused or absent (Evans);
 19. Parietal foramen absent;
 20. Parietals send posterior processes into the occiput;
 21. Otic notch well developed;
 22. Maxillary-vomer secondary palate (Clark);
 23. Pterygoids meet medially in the palate;
 24. Palatal teeth are absent;
 25. Marginal teeth laterally compressed and serrated;
 26. Thecodont dentition;
 27. Presence of an ossified laterosphenoid;
 28. Pit between basioccipital and basisphenoid;
 29. Enlarged pneumatic basipterygoid processes (Gauthier);
 30. Lateral mandibular fenestra;
 31. Coronoid reduced or absent;
 32. Presacral vertebral column divided into three regions (cervical, cervical-thoracic, lumbar);
 33. atlas centrum and axis intercentrum fuse;
 34. axial diapophysis reduced or absent (Gauthier);
 35. Diapophysis of cervicals is placed high on the neural arch;
 36. Centra steeply inclined in at least cervicals 3-6 (Gauthier);
 37. Presacral intercentra are absent behind the axis;
 38. Cervical ribs short and stout;
 39. Loss of trunk intercentra (Evans);
 40. Parapophysis transfers ro neural arch in anterior dorsals;
 41. Diapophysis and parapophysis fuse in posterior dorsals (i.e single-headed ribs);
 42. Neural spines of dorsal vertebrae have expanded tips;
 43. Dorsal centra are very constricted in ventral view;
 44. Three or more sacral vertebrae;
 45. Ribs are all one- or two-headed;
 46. Zygapophyses of middle and posterior caudals are inclined postero-ventrally;
 47. Accessory neural spine on caudals (Clark);
 48. Ossified portion of scapula very tall and narrow (height more than twice width of base);
 49. Scapula is long and strap-like, without expanded tip;
 50. Coracoid small and glenoid faces largely backwards;
 51. Glenoid faces fully backwards;
 52. Loss of interlavicle;
 53. Reduction or loss of clavicle;
 54. Loss of clavicle (Clark);
 55. Forelimb: hindlimb length ratio is c. 0.6 (bipedality);
 56. Deltopectoral crest runs down one-quarter to one-third the length of he humerus;
 57. Deltopecttoral crest low and runs one-third or one-half length of shaft;
 58. Distal end of humerus narrower than proximal;
 59. No ectepicondylar groove or foramen (Evans);
 60. Manus digit I is short and equipped with a diverging claw;
 61. Manus digits IV and V are reduced;
 62. No more than four phalanges in manus digit IV;
 63. Pelvis is markedly 3-rayed, with long downturned pubis and ischium;
 64. Acetabulum perforated;
 65. Acetabulum fully open (not just a slit);
 66. Acetabulum subhorizontal and faces down, giving 'pillar-like' erect posture;
 67. Supraacetabular crest on ilium;
 68. Iliac blade is oriented subhorizontally;
 69. Iliac blade is low and long;
 70. Iliac blade has a small anterior process;
 71. Pubis attaches to an antero-ventral face on the ilium;
 72. Pubis has a strongly downturned anterior tuber, when seen in lateral view;
 73. Pubis is more than three times as long as acetabular width (Gauthier);
 74. Proximal distance between the ischia is less than that between the pubes;
 75. No pubo-ischiadic plate (much reduced contact between pubis and ischium);
 76. Pubis is long and narrow and subvertically oriented;
 77. Pubis is longer than the ischium;
 78. Ischium has a large postero-ventral process;
 79. Hindlimbs are under the body (semi-erect or erect gait);
 80. Proximal head of femur tunred inwards at about 45 degrees;
 81. Proximal head of femur fully offset, with distinct neck and ball;
 82. Possession of lesser trochanter;
 83. Possession of fourth trochanter;
 84. Fourth trochanter is a sharp flange;
 85. Fourth trochanter is a wing-like process;
 86. Fourth trochanter runs one-third to one-half of length of shaft;
 87. Femur is ahorter than tibia;
 88. Shaft of femur is bowed dorsally;
 89. Distal end of femur forms two subterminal condyles;
 90. Knee articulates at c. 90 degrees;
 91. Prominent cnemial crest on tibia;
 92. Fibula is greatly reduced;
 93. Stance is digitigrade;
 94. Tarsus contains only four elements
 95. 'Crocodiloid' tarsus (loss of foramen; rotation between calcaneum and astragalus);
 96. Crocodile-normal tarsus;
 97. Advanced crocodile-normal tarsus;
 98. Large posterior calcaneal tuber;
 99. Ventral flange of astragalus absent (Gauthier);
 100. Crocodile-reversed ankle joint (peg on calcaneum; socket on astragalus);
 101. Mesotarsal ankle joint, with astragalus and calcaneum fused and to tibia;
 102. Calcaneum with no tuber at all;
 103. Ascending process of astragalus fits between tibia and fibula;
 104. Ascending process well developed;
 105. Metatarsals II, III and IV subequal, with III longest;
 106. Loss of anterior proximal 'hook' on metatarsal V;
 107. Digit V of the foot is reduced (shorter than I);
 108. Metatarsals II-IV are closely bunched as a unit;
 109. Metatarsals II-IV are elongated and foot is funtionally tridactyl;
 110. Fewer than four phalanges in pedal digit V (Gauthier);
 111. Dermal armour present, with two osteoderms per vertebra;
 112. Osteoderms on the ventral surface of the tail;
 113. Squamosal broadly ovrhangs quadrate laterally;
 114. Postfrontal absent;
 115. Post-temporal fenestra small or absent;
 116. Prootic does not broadly contact anterior surface of paroccipital process;
 117. Proximal carpals elongated;
 118. Primary contact of quadrate head with prootic;
 119. Pneumatic space in body of basisphenoid;
 120. Mastoid antrum enters into prootic;
 121. Pedal digit IV with four phalanges;
 122. Quadratojugal reaches dorsally to postorbital, descending process of squamosal concomitantly reduced;
 123. Parietal relatively narrow on occiput, squamosal relatively wide;
 124. Maxillae form secondary palate (with vomer);
 125. Jugal does not form posterior border of antorbital fenestra;
 126. Quadrate foramen absent between quadrate and quadratojugal;
 127. Subcapsular process on the otoccipital;
 128. Posteroventral process in the coracoid;
 129. Antorbital fenestra relatively small, about as tall as long;
 130. Parietals fused,
 131. Maxillary secondary palate without vomer contribution;
 132. Lateral edge of squamosal with groove;
 133. Dorsal osteoderms rectangular in shape;
 134. Great anterior extent of quadrate beneath squamosal.]
 
 MATRIX
	Youngina	90000000000000000000000000000000990000001000001000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
	Trilophosaurus	00000000000000001110001100000000000000001000000100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
	Hyperodapedon	90000000000000001110001100000000000010111000000100000000000000000000000000000010000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
	Prolacerta	90000000000000000000000000000000000000001000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
	Proterosuchus	90010001000010000100000010100000000000100000000000000000001009000000000000000000001000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
	Erythrosuchus	90010001000010000100000010100110000010100000000101000001011999100000010100000100001001000000010000000000110001000000000000000000000000
	Euparkeria	90011011000110100110100011000110001000111100100101000001011009100000010100000110001000000000011000100000110001100000000000000000000000
	Chanaresuchus	90010001100010000110110011900110000010100000100101000001011999000000010100000110001001000000011000000000111001100000000000000000000000
	Parasuchus	00011001000010000111101111100110001011111100100101000000011001100000010000000110001000000000011101000000110000100000000000000000000000
	Ornithosuchus	10011011000110101111101111999110991010111000100101000011011119110010010110111111011100010010111000910000111001100000000000000000000000
	Doswellia	99999991109900001110191011900010990010100100100999900009999999000001110100001010001000900009999999999999999999100000000000000000000000
	Stagonolepis	10011011000111011111101111110110991011111110100101000000011000100101111100111010001000000000011111000000111000110000000000000000000000
	Gracilisuchus	10011011000011000111191111999110091011111100100101000000011999100000010999199111001000000010111111000000111001100000000000000000000000
	Ticinosuchus	11111111011111001199199911999190111011111110101101000000011000100101111101110111001000000000011111000000111001110000000000000000000000
	Saurosuchus	11111111011111901199191111999190991011111110101101099900019999100111111111110111001000000000011111000000111001190000000000000000000000
	Postosuchus	11111111011101011111111111999110111011111001109101011110011000110010011110111111001000000000111111000000111001990000000000000000000000
	Terrestrisuchus	90011011100001011110110111199110911011111000101101001110011001110010011011011111110010001000001111110000011100111111111110000000000000
	Protosuchus	10011011100191011111111111191110111011111000101101001100011001110000010110101111001000100000011111000000111001111111111111111111111111
	Crocodylus	10009091100991011111111111191110111011111000101101001100011001110000011011101011110010001000000111110000001110011111111111111111111111
	Lagosuchus	90011099999999109999909911100991001110111000190101099911011999110010010110111111011111011110111000101110111111990000000000000000000000
	P1ateosaurus	10011011000010101111100111100111001110111001110111111011111101111010010110111111111111111111111000101111111111100000000000000000000000
	;
END;