UB EARTH
SCIENCES

Chondrichthyes: Gaudin (1991)

#NEXUS BEGIN TAXA;
	DIMENSIONS NTAX=25;
	TAXLABELS
		Placodermi
		Acanthodii
		Actinopterygii
		Rhipidistia
		Actinistia
		Dipnoi
		Osteichthyes
		'Modern Holocephalans'
		Helodus
		Holocephali
		Iniopterygii
		Cladoselache
		Stethacanthidae
		'Cobelodus/Symmorium'
		Denaea
		Antarctilamna
		Diplodoselache
		Xenacanthidae
		Ctenacanthidae
		Onychoselache
		Tristychius
		Hybodus
		Hopleacanthus
		Palaeospinax
		Squalus
		;
ENDBLOCK;

BEGIN CHARACTERS;
	DIMENSIONS NCHAR=71;
	FORMAT DATATYPE=STANDARD MISSING=? GAP=- SYMBOLS="012";
	CHARLABELS
		[1] 'Prismatically calcified cartilage'
		[2] 'Gill septum'
		[3] 'Placoid scales'
		[4] 'Replacemement tooth rows'
		[5] 'Precerebral fontanelle'
		[6] 'Posteriorly directed median basibranchial copula'
		[7] Interhyal
		[8] 'Basipterygial pelvic claspers'
		[9] 'Ceratobranchials and hypobranchials'
		[10] 'Premetapterygial radials of the pectoral fin'
		[11] 'Pelvic metapterygium articulates with'
		[12] 'Hypobranchials directed'
		[13] 'Basibranchials and basihyals'
		[14] 'Pectoral fin'
		[15] 'Ectethmoid process'
		[16] 'Number of dorsal fin spines'
		[17] 'Number of dorsal fins'
		[18] 'Fin spine'
		[19] 'Occipital segment'
		[20] 'Diplodont teeth'
		[21] 'Fin spine cross-section'
		[22] 'Dorsal fin'
		[23] 'Pectoral propterygium and mesopterygium'
		[24] 'Pectoral metapterygium'
		[25] 'Post-axial radials'
		[26] 'Metapterygial articulation'
		[27] 'Lower lobe of caudal fin'
		[28] 'Propterygium and mesopterygium'
		[29] 'Notochordal axis in caudal fin'
		[30] 'Dorsal and caudal fin'
		[31] 'Dorsal fin'
		[32] 'Propterygium and mesopterygium'
		[33] 'Pectoral metapterygial axis'
		[34] 'Basiventrals anterior to caudal fin'
		[35] 'Hypotic lamina'
		[36] 'Non-growing scales'
		[37] 'Calcified vertebral centra'
		[38] 'Fin spine'
		[39] 'Scales with'
		[40] 'Occipital half-centrum'
		[41] 'Occipital condyles'
		[42] 'Lateral aortae'
		[43] 'Notochordal canal'
		[44] 'Parallel-fiber ebaneloid in teeth'
		[45] 'Pelvic metapterygium and main mixipterygial cartilage'
		[46] 'Hypophysial duct'
		[47] 'Pelvic metapterygium'
		[48] 'Median ventral keel in ethmoid region'
		[49] 'Postorbital process'
		[50] 'Complete series of radials in the anterior dorsal fin'
		[51] 'Haphazard-fiber enameloid in teeth'
		[52] Holostyly
		[53] 'Gill arches'
		[54] Operculum
		[55] Synarcual
		[56] 'Pectoral metapterygial axis'
		[57] Palatoquadrates
		[58] Pharyngohyal
		[59] 'Hyomandibula/neurocranial articulation'
		[60] Neurocranium
		[61] 'Anal fin'
		[62] Neurocranium
		[63] 'Fin spine with'
		[64] 'Hypochordal lobe of caudal fin'
		[65] 'Calcified ribs'
		[66] 'Pectoral metapterygial axis'
		[67] 'Lingual torsus'
		[68] 'Pectoral fin'
		[69] Hyostyly
		[70] 'Pectoral girdle'
		[71] 'Pelvic girdle'
		;
	STATELABELS
		1
			'absent '
			'present ',
		2
			'does not extend to the lamellar margin '
			'does extend to the lamellar margin ',
		3
			'absent '
			'present ',
		4
			'absent '
			'present ',
		5
			'absent '
			'present ',
		6
			'absent '
			'present ',
		7
			'present '
			'absent (derived) ',
		8
			'absent '
			'present ',
		9
			'fused '
			'separated ',
		10
			'articulate with shoulder girdle or single basals '
			'articulate with compound basals ',
		11
			'relatively radials (or all radials, as in Denaea and Holocephalans) '
			'all but a few anterior radials ',
		12
			'medially or anteriorly '
			'largely posteriorly ',
		13
			'in contact or close apposition '
			'separated by a gap ',
		14
			'not tribasal '
			'dibasal '
			tribasal,
		15
			'absent '
			'present ',
		16
			'zero '
			'one '
			two,
		17
			'zero '
			'one '
			two,
		18
			'smooth '
			'pectinate ornaments ',
		19
			'unexpanded '
			'broadly expanded ',
		20
			'absent '
			'present ',
		21
			'not rounded '
			'rounded ',
		22
			'unexpanded '
			'expanded rostro-caudally ',
		23
			'unreduced '
			'reduced ',
		24
			'unsegmented '
			'segmented, distinguished from post-metapterygial elements by the absence of post-axial radials ',
		25
			'absent '
			'present ',
		26
			'is not '
			'is the primary shoulder articulation ',
		27
			'is not '
			'is constricted at the base, separate from more distal hypaxial radials ',
		28
			'present '
			'one or the other absent '
			'both absent',
		29
			'straight '
			'upturned ',
		30
			'widely separate '
			'separated by a smal notch ',
		31
			'posterior to scapula '
			'anterior to scapula, with fin spine close to or articulating with the braincase ',
		32
			'do not '
			'do form the primary shoulder articulation ',
		33
			'parallel '
			'not parallel to body axis ',
		34
			'not calcified '
			'calcified ',
		35
			'unfused '
			'fused to floor of otic capsule ',
		36
			'absent '
			'present ',
		37
			'absent '
			'present ',
		38
			'without enameloid mantle '
			'possessing enameloid mantle, lacking posterior tubercles ',
		39
			'multiple pulp cavities '
			'single pulp cavity and single basal canal ',
		40
			'absent '
			'present ',
		41
			'absent '
			'present ',
		42
			'run straight anteriorly '
			'swing laterally to meet efferent hyoidean and internal carotid arteries ',
		43
			'unconstricted '
			'constricted ',
		44
			'absent '
			'present ',
		45
			'separated by more than 2 segments '
			'separated by 1-2 segments ',
		46
			'open '
			'closed externally ',
		47
			'does not '
			'does span entire fin base ',
		48
			'present '
			'absent ',
		49
			'unreduced '
			'reduced ventrally ',
		50
			'absent '
			'present ',
		51
			'absent '
			'present ',
		52
			'absent '
			'present ',
		53
			'under neurocranium '
			'not under neurocranium ',
		54
			'absent '
			'present ',
		55
			'absent '
			'present ',
		56
			'small or absent '
			'prominent ',
		57
			'unfused '
			'fused at the symphysis ',
		58
			'present '
			'absent ',
		59
			'absent due to presence of pharyngohyal '
			'absent '
			present,
		60
			'relatively long and flattened '
			'short, deep with large orbits ',
		61
			'absent '
			'present ',
		62
			'lacking '
			'possessing elongate otic region ',
		63
			'shallow '
			'deep insertion ',
		64
			'absent '
			'small '
			large,
		65
			'absent '
			'present ',
		66
			'large '
			'small or lost ',
		67
			'present '
			'absent ',
		68
			'plesodic '
			'aplesodic with ceratotrichia '
			'aplesodic with lepidotrichia',
		69
			'absent '
			'present ',
		70
			'unfused ventrally '
			'fused ',
		71
			'unfused ventrally '
			'fused ',
	;
	MATRIX
		Placodermi                0?000??01? ???0101??? ?0????0?00 0??1000?00 0?0???010? ?011101120 01?001?111 0
		Acanthodii                000001001? ?0000221?0 00????0?10 0??100000? 0?0??0??0? ?000??012? 1001011210 ?
		Actinopterygii            0000000010 00?1001??0 ?0?0000110 0001000?0? 0?0??00?0? ?011000120 10?1111200 0
		Rhipidistia               0?0000001? ?000002??0 ?0???10210 0?11001?00 0?0??0?010 ?011010120 10?1001200 0
		Actinistia                00000?00?? 0??0002??0 ?0???10210 0?11001?0? ??0??00110 ?011010120 10?1101200 1
		Dipnoi                    0?0000100? 0?00002??? ?0?0110210 0?11000?00 0?0??0001? ?11101?120 10?110?200 ?
		Osteichthyes              0000010010 000000???0 ?0?0010210 0011000?00 0?00?00100 0011000120 10?10112?0 0
		'Modern Holocephalans'    1110011111 00010120?0 00?0000100 0011010000 1?0?001100 ?11111?001 ?000001101 0
		Helodus                   1?110????1 0??10120?0 00?0000110 00000?000? 1?0??01??0 ?11?11???0 0001001100 0
		Holocephali               1111011111 00010120?0 00?00001?0 000?0?0000 1?0?001100 ?11111?00? 000?001100 0
		Iniopterygii              1?111111?? 0?00?01?00 ?0????0200 0??1??0??? ??0?0?1?0? ?01100???1 00?001?000 0
		Cladoselache              1111101?10 0??0012000 00?0000210 0?10?0000? 100??00101 ?000000121 0002010000 0
		Stethacanthidae           1?11111110 01?0011000 00?0000210 0?01?000?? ??10000??0 000101?121 0002000000 0
		'Cobelodus/Symmorium'     1?01111100 0??0001?00 ?0?0000210 0?00??0??? 100001010? 0001010111 00?2000000 0
		Denaea                    1?111?11?0 0??0001?00 ?0?0000210 0?01?00??? 1?00000?0? 000?0101?1 00?2000000 ?
		Antarctilamna             1?111????? ?????221?1 0????????? ?????0?10? ?1?0?0?10? 00???????0 ?10???0??? ?
		Diplodoselache            1?11??1??? 0??2?110?1 1110000010 0000?0000? ??00??0??? 000?0101?0 1102000000 0
		Xenacanthidae             1?01111110 0?00111011 11?1111201 1?110?00?? 100000000? 0001010110 1101100100 0
		Ctenacanthidae            1?11??1??1 0??2?22110 0000000010 0000?0000? ??00??0??0 00??01?120 1112000000 0
		Onychoselache             1?01??11?1 1??2?22100 1000100010 0111??00?? ??000?0?00 000?0011?? 1011111000 0
		Tristychius               1?11111111 11?2122100 0000100010 01011000?? ?000000100 0001011120 1111100100 0
		Hybodus                   1?111?1111 11?2122100 1000000010 0111110000 0000000000 000?000120 1011111101 1
		Hopleacanthus             1?111?11?? 1??2122000 1000000010 0001?1?10? 10?0000?0? 00??01?1?0 1011?01000 0
		Palaeospinax              1?11??11?? 1?0??220?0 00??????10 0??1111111 1111111??0 00000?112? 10110?010? ?
		Squalus                   1111111111 1112122000 0000000010 0111111111 1111111011 1000001120 0011111111 1
	;
ENDBLOCK;
BEGIN ASSUMPTIONS;
	OPTIONS DEFTYPE=UNORD POLYTCOUNT=MINSTEPS;
	TYPESET * default = ORD: 16 - 17 28;
ENDBLOCK;
BEGIN NOTES;
	[Character comments]
	TEXT CHARACTER=17 TEXT='Modified from presence/absence to account for single dorsal fin present in placoderms, actinopterygians, symmoriids, stethacanthidae and xenacanths';
ENDBLOCK;