UB EARTH
SCIENCES

Data on basal amniote/ reptile/ bird trees

List of cladograms tested for their correspondence with stratigraphic data. Cladograms are listed alphabetically. For each group, data are listed in order, as follows:

Group

No. terminals

SRL

MIG

Gmin

Gmax

RCI

RCI & GER Sig

Consistent nodes

SCI

SCI Sig.

GER

Range of O

Reference

Amniota(1)

6

1233

177

85

189

85.644769

73

2

0.5

87.5

0.11539

Tri-Jur

Gaffney (1980, in Benton 1991, fig. 6)

Amniota(2)

6

1233

189

85

189

84.671533

100

2

0.5

88.5

0

Tri-Jur

Gardiner (1982, fig. 2)

Amniota(3)

12

1570

333

168

801

78.789809

100

7

0.7

0.75

0.73934

Perm-Cret

Gardiner (1982, fig. 3)

Amniota(4)

5

750

185

156

316

75.333333

2.75

2

0.666667

29.25

0.81875

Carb-Jur

Gardiner (1982, fig. 4)

Amniota(5)

6

1233

189

85

189

84.671533

100

1

0.25

93.25

0

Tri-Jur

Løvtrup (1985, in Benton 1991, fig. 8)

Amniota(6)

29

1978

381

101

1726

80.738119

100

18

0.666667

93.25

0.82769

Carb-Tri

Gauthier et al. (1988a, fig. 3)

Amniota(7)

10

986

173

88

362

82.454361

1.5

6

0.75

3

0.68978

Carb-Tri

Gauthier et al. (1988b, fig. 4.4)

Amniota(8)

12

1284

248

88

500

80.685358

10

7

0.7

8.5

0.61165

Carb-Tri

Benton (1991, fig. 14)

Amniota(9)

6

1101

115

107

320

89.55495

3

3

0.75

10.5

0.962441

Carb-Jur

Gaffney & Meeker (1983, fig. 2)

Amniota(10)

8

706

107

56

315

84.844193

3

3

0.5

16.5

0.803089

Carb-Perm

deBraga & Reisz (1996, fig. 3)

Anapsida-Captorhinidae

8

122

55

55

268

54.918033

0.5

6

1

0.5

1

Carb-Perm

Dodick and Modesto (1995, fig. 15)

Anapsida-Pareiasauria(1)

6

31

11

6

15

64.516129

23

2

0.5

42

0.444444

Perm

Lee et al. (1997, fig. 9)

Testudines(1)

6

633

231

169

511

63.507109

16.25

2

0.5

19.5

0.81871

Tri-Paleog

Gaffney (1975, fig. 26)

Testudines(2)

18

1211

652

169

2323

46.160198

0.75

8

0.5

6.75

0.77577

Tri-Paleog

Gaffney (1984, fig. 1)

Testudines(3)

6

609

193

169

496

68.308703

5

2

0.5

42.25

0.92661

Tri-Paleog

Moody (1984, fig. 1)

Testudines(4)

13

944

353

169

1343

62.605932

5

6

0.545455

0.75

0.84327

Tri-Paleog

Gaffney & Meylan (1988, fig. 5.1)

Testudines(A)

11

846

348

82

518

58.865248

13.5

4

0.444444

30.5

0.389908

Cret-Rec

Shaffer et al. (1997, fig. 1)

Testudines(B)

14

1033

445

183

1911

56.921588

2

7

0.583333

14

0.84838

Tri-Rec

Shaffer et al. (1997, fig. 2)

Testudines(C-E)

13

1014

276

82

598

72.781065

1

6

0.545455

44.5

0.624031

Cret-Rec

Shaffer et al. (1997, fig. 3a)

Testudines(C-E)

13

1014

278

82

598

72.583826

1

5

0.454545

56.5

0.620155

Cret-Rec

Shaffer et al. (1997, fig. 3b)

Testudines(C-E)

13

1014

210

82

598

79.289941

1

7

0.636364

32

0.751938

Cret-Rec

Shaffer et al. (1997, fig. 3c)

Testudines(F,G)

14

1033

445

183

1911

56.921588

2

7

0.583333

14

0.84838

Tri-Rec

Shaffer et al. (1997, fig. 3d)

Testudines(F,G)

14

1033

311

183

1911

69.893514

2

8

0.666667

5

0.925926

Tri-Rec

Shaffer et al. (1997, fig. 4a)

Testudines(H, J)

16

1206

591

183

2132

50.995025

0.5

7

0.5

12.5

0.790662

Tri-Rec

Shaffer et al. (1997, fig. 4b)

Testudines(H, J)

16

1206

470

183

2132

61.028192

0.5

8

0.571429

1

0.852745

Tri-Rec

Shaffer et al. (1997, fig. 4c)

Testudines(I)

15

1132

569

183

1981

49.734982

1.5

7

0.538462

8.5

0.785317

Tri-Rec

Shaffer et al. (1997, fig. 4d)

Testudines-Baenidae

4

36

92

83

92

-155.55556

100

1

0.5

83

0

Cret-Rec

Brinkman & Nicholls (1991, fig. 10)

Testudines-Bataguridae

26

197

631

56

1209

-220.30457

38.25

10

0.416667

56.75

0.5013

Paleog-Neog

Gaffney & Meylan (1988, fig. 5.12)

Testudines-Chelonioidea

21

368

416

102

958

-13.043478

4.75

8

0.421053

40.25

0.63318

Cret-Neog

Gaffney & Meylan (1988, fig. 5.9)

Testudines-Cryptodira

7

368

220

123

628

40.217391

5

3

0.6

12.5

0.80792

Jur-Cret

Brinkman & Nicholls (1993, fig. 4)

Testudines-Emydidae

10

88

217

56

472

-146.59091

66.25

4

0.5

55.75

0.61298

Paleog-Neog

Gaffney & Meylan (1988, fig. 5.11)

Testudines-Kinosternidae

9

35

115

56

298

-228.57143

1.5

5

0.714286

4

0.756198

Eoc-Rec

Hutchison (1991, fig. 10)

Testudines-Pleurodira(1)

15

578

336

112

649

41.868512

2

5

0.384615

72.5

0.582868

Cret-Rec

Meylan (1996, fig. 11)

Testudines-Pleurodira(2)

18

457

534

225

3098

-16.849015

46.75

7

0.4375

25

0.89245

Tri-Neog

Gaffney & Meylan (1988, fig. 5.7)

Testudines-Protostegidae

7

111

45

29

141

59.459459

7

3

0.6

12.5

0.857143

Cret

Hooks (1998, fig. 1)

Testudines-Selmacryptodira

21

383

751

155

1559

-96.083551

0.25

10

0.526316

51.25

0.5755

Jur-Neog

Gaffney & Meylan (1988, fig. 5.8)

Testudines-Testudinidae

20

294

282

56

771

4.081633

0.75

11

0.611111

2.5

0.68392

Paleog-Neog

Gaffney & Meylan (1988, fig. 5.13)

Testudines-Trionychoidea

27

458

857

112

2125

-87.117904

2

15

0.6

3.75

0.62991

Cret-Neog

Gaffney & Meylan (1988, fig. 5.10)

Diapsida(1)

11

1102

149

93

624

86.479129

2

4

0.444444

9.25

0.89454

Carb-Tri

Gauthier et al. (1988a, fig. 3)

Diapsida(2)

10

562

201

139

512

64.234875

0.5

5

0.625

5.5

0.83378

Carb-Jur

Laurin (1991, fig. 11)

Diapsida(3)

28

1243

321

133

565

74.175382

19

13

0.5

49

0.564815

Carb-Cret

Rieppel (1998, fig. 7B)

Diapsida-basal(1)

4

94

74

61

90

21.276596

36

1

0.5

52

0.551724

Carb-Perm

Reisz et al. (1984, fig. 5)

Diapsida-basal(2)

8

124

74

61

241

40.322581

0.5

5

0.833333

1

0.927778

Carb-Perm

deBraga & Reisz (1995, fig. 6)

Lepidosauromorpha(1)

12

628

192

187

475

69.426752

4

10

1

84.25

0.98264

Perm-Paleog

Benton (1985, fig. 10)

Lepidosauromorpha(2)

27

392

624

252

1521

-59.183673

4

14

0.56

4

0.70686

Perm-Neog

Evans (1988, fig. 6.2)

Lepidosauromorpha(3)

7

452

96

86

126

78.761062

4.25

3

0.6

11.25

0.75

Perm-Jur

Gauthier et al. (1988c, fig. 13)

Lepidosauromorpha(4)

13

497

299

97

399

39.839034

3.75

4

0.363636

41

0.33113

Perm-Jur

Gauthier et al. (1988c, appendix fig. 1)

Lepidosauromorpha(5)

14

513

269

100

461

47.563353

0.5

7

0.583333

4.25

0.53186

Perm-Jur

Clark & Hernandez (1994, appendix fig.)

Younginiformes(1)

6

29

NAN(000)

5

5

82.758621

100

4

1

70.5

NAN(000)

Perm-Tri

Smith & Evans (1996, fig. 9)

Lepidosauria(1)

21

1481

784

237

3496

47.062795

4

7

0.368421

84.25

0.83216

Tri-Neog

Schwenk (1988, fig. 14)

Lepidosauria(2)

23

1305

1157

237

3264

11.340996

1

8

0.380952

19

0.696069

Tri-Rec

Evans & Chure (1998, fig. 4)

Sphenodontia(1)

5

278

203

82

203

26.978417

100

0

0

100

0

Tri-Jur

Gauthier et al. (1988c, fig. 12)

Sphenodontia(2)

10

305

350

85

350

-14.754098

100

2

0.25

94.5

0

Tri-Jur

Sues et al. (1994, fig. 8)

Sphenodontia(3)

14

130

434

237

871

-233.84615

20

2

0.166667

100

0.689274

Tri-Rec

Reynoso (1996, fig. 9)

Sphenodontia(4)

9

329

382

125

587

-16.109422

21

1

0.142857

75

0.443723

Tri-Cret

Reynoso (1997, fig. 7)

Sphenodontia(5)

20

229

700

237

1192

-205.67686

0.5

5

0.277778

97.5

0.515183

Tri-Rec

Reynoso & Clark (1998, fig. 4)

Squamata(1)

18

1157

479

112

859

58.599827

17.25

6

0.375

92

0.5087

Cret-Paleog

Camp (1923; in Estes et al. 1988, fig. 7)

Squamata(2)

18

1055

559

112

961

47.014218

79

7

0.4375

77.5

0.4735

Cret-Paleog

Underwood (1957; in Presch 1988, fig. 3)

Squamata(3)

21

1057

687

112

1295

35.00473

49

9

0.473684

73.75

0.51395

Cret-Paleog

Underwood (1971; in Presch 1988, fig. 4)

Squamata(4)

24

1225

568

112

1463

53.632653

35.25

7

0.466667

71.5

0.66247

Cret-Paleog

Northcutt (1978; in Presch 1988, fig. 2)

Squamata(5)

25

1225

519

112

1575

57.632653

16.5

7

0.466667

81.25

0.7218

Cret-Paleog

Estes et al. (1988, fig. 5A)

Squamata(6)

16

958

470

112

834

50.939457

43.5

6

0.428571

74.75

0.50416

Cret-Paleog

Estes et al. (1988, fig. 5B)

Squamata(7)

16

958

450

112

834

53.02714

40.25

5

0.357143

95.75

0.53186

Cret-Paleog

Estes et al. (1988, fig. 5C)

Squamata(8)

25

1225

665

112

1575

45.714286

17.75

7

0.411765

63.25

0.62201

Cret-Paleog

Estes et al. (1988, fig. 6)

Squamata(9)

16

1032

396

112

760

61.627907

47.75

6

0.428571

79.25

0.56173

Cret-Paleog

Presch (1988, fig. 5)

Squamata(10)

16

1032

376

112

760

63.565891

32

6

0.428571

74.25

0.59259

Cret-Paleog

Rieppel (1988, fig. 7.1)

Squamata(11)

25

1225

680

112

1575

44.489796

31

6

0.352941

91.75

0.61176

Cret-Paleog

Schwenk (1988, fig. 12)

Squamata(12)

6

392

133

101

373

66.071429

18

1

0.25

68

0.882353

Jur-Eoc

Zaher (1998, fig. 1)

Squamata-Anguimorpha(1)

6

407

332

92

360

18.427518

61

1

0.25

66

0.104478

Jur-Cret

Evans (1994, fig. 16)

Squamata-Anguimorpha(2)

10

428

474

157

777

-10.747664

15

4

0.5

9.5

0.48871

Jur-Rec

Carroll & deBraga (1992, fig. 14)

Squamata-Anolinae

8

25

117

23

159

-368

100

1

0.166667

100

0.30882

Neog

Etheridge & de Queiroz (1988, fig. 9)

Squamata-Gekkota

18

2

10

2

34

-400

59.75

12

0.75

59.75

0.75

Cret-Neog

Grismer (1988, fig. 4)

Squamata-Gerrhonotinae

8

34

81

23

146

-138.23529

33

1

0.166667

66.5

0.528455

Mioc-Rec

Good (1988, fig. 1)

Squamata-Glyptosaurinae

12

109

99

48

378

9.174312

1.5

6

0.6

5.5

0.845455

Cret-Olig

Sullivan (1986, fig. 7)

Squamata-Iguaninae

8

29

48

23

155

-65.517241

17.25

3

0.5

25.5

0.81061

Neog

Etheridge & de Queiroz (1988, fig. 13)

Squamata-Mosasauridae

9

129

50

16

69

61.24031

23.5

4

0.571429

13

0.358491

Cret

Soliar (1988, fig. 8)

Squamata-Plioplatecarpus

5

49

13

13

52

73.469388

17.5

3

1

17.5

1

Cret

Holmes (1996, fig. 18)

Squamata-Sceloporinae

9

57

122

23

150

-114.03509

89.75

2

0.285714

84.25

0.22047

Neog

Etheridge & de Queiroz (1988, fig. 16)

Squamata-Teiidae

14

134

282

83

676

-110.44776

0.25

5

0.416667

100

0.66442

Cret-Neog

Denton & O'Neill (1995, fig. 14)

Squamata-Tropidurinae

13

23

46

23

276

-100

17

10

0.909091

17

0.90909

Neog

Etheridge & de Queiroz (1988, fig. 12)

Squamata-Varanidae

6

87

166

83

166

-90.804598

100

2

0.5

100

0

Cret-Neog

Clos (1995, fig. 5)

Squamata-Varanoidea

8

72

125

97

213

-73.611111

1.5

2

0.333333

64

0.75862

Cret-Neog

Caldwell et al. (1995, fig. 4A)

Archosauromorpha(1)

12

829

143

80

658

82.750302

4

5

0.5

7.25

0.891

Carb-Tri

Benton (1985, fig. 4)

Archosauromorpha(2)

15

626

209

45

261

66.613419

49

3

0.230769

33.75

0.24074

Perm-Tri

Evans (1988, fig. 6.1)

Archosauromorpha(3)

8

604

45

20

84

92.549669

10.25

4

0.666667

2.25

0.60938

Perm-Tri

Clark et al. (1993, fig. 1)

Archosauromorpha(4)

5

598

30

20

40

94.983278

32.5

1

0.333333

100

0.5

Perm-Tri

Chatterjee (1986, fig. 9)

Prolacertiformes(1)

17

409

233

32

233

43.031785

100

0

0

100

0

Perm-Tri

Jalil (1997, fig. 21)

Prolacertiformes(2)

8

75

40

20

102

46.666667

3

4

0.666667

13.5

0.756098

Perm-Tri

Chatterjee (1986, fig. 10)

Prolacertiformes(3)

17

138

252

33

351

-82.608696

1.5

3

0.2

19

0.311321

Perm-Tri

Benton & Allen (1997, fig. 16A)

Prolacertiformes(4)

12

95

205

33

238

-115.78947

74

3

0.3

49.5

0.160976

Perm-Tri

Benton & Allen (1997, fig. 16B)

Prolacertiformes(5)

13

393

104

32

193

73.536896

5.5

6

0.545455

3

0.552795

Perm-Tri

Jalil (1997, fig. 22)

Prolacertiformes(6)

16

125

169

33

318

-35.2

19.5

6

0.428571

29

0.522807

Perm-Tri

Benton & Allen (1997, fig. 17)

Rhynchosauria(1)

6

39

10

10

28

74.358974

1.5

4

1

1.5

1

Tri

Dilkes, D. W. (1995, fig. 8)

Archosauria(1)

12

795

64

27

141

91.949686

4.5

4

0.4

24

0.67544

Perm-Tri

Gauthier (1986, fig. 7)

Archosauria(2)

15

621

66

42

227

89.371981

4.5

9

0.692308

24

0.87027

Perm-Tri

Benton & Clark (1988, fig. 8.1)

Archosauria(3)

20

693

84

40

242

87.878788

0.25

8

0.444444

5.25

0.78218

Perm-Tri

Parrish (1993, fig. 1)

Archosauria(4)

11

740

59

40

151

92.027027

0.25

7

0.777778

5.25

0.82883

Perm-Tri

Sereno (1991, fig. 26)

Archosauria(5)

5

650

23

18

26

96.461538

26.25

2

0.666667

25.5

0.375

Tri

Sereno & Arcucci (1993, fig. 6)

Archosauria(6)

5

281

174

164

194

38.078292

58.5

1

0.333333

100

0.666667

Tri-Cret

Paul (1984, fig. 5, version 1)

Archosauria(6)

5

281

174

164

194

38.078292

62.5

2

0.666667

49

0.666667

Tri-Cret

Paul (1984, fig. 5, version 2)

Archosauria(7)

12

293

467

160

1072

-59.385666

0.5

4

0.4

7.5

0.663377

Tri-Cret

Buscalioni et al. (1996, fig. 3)

Archosauria(8)

10

321

10

10

30

96.884735

62.5

8

1

6

1

Tri

Gower & Sennikov (1996, fig. 7)

Archosauria(9)

7

35

41

37

41

-17.142857

100

5

1

58

0

Tri-Jur

Gower & Sennikov (1997, fig. 11)

Archosauria(10)

6

31

41

37

41

-32.258065

100

3

0.75

96

0

Tri-Jur

Gower & Sennikov (1997, fig. 12)

Archosauria(11)

8

89

37

37

57

58.426966

1

5

0.833333

60.5

1

Tri-Jur

Gower & Sennikov (1997, fig. 13)

Archosauria-Erythrosuchidae

7

30

NAN(000)

0

0

100

100

5

1

100

NAN(000)

Tri

Parrish (1992, fig. 1)

Archos.-Rauisuchiformes

10

162

43

18

85

73.45679

2.5

5

0.625

5.75

0.62687

Tri

Parrish (1994, fig. 7)

Crocodylomorpha(1)

22

801

743

198

1892

7.240949

4.75

7

0.35

1.25

0.67828

Tri-Paleog

Benton & Clark (1988, figs 8.6, 8.7B, 8.9B, 8.10A, 8.11B)

Crocodylomorpha(2)

22

801

709

198

1892

11.485643

0.5

8

0.4

2

0.69835

Tri-Paleog

Benton & Clark (1988, figs 8.6, 8.7A, 8.9A, 8.10C)

Crocodylomorpha(3)

11

353

97

37

216

72.521246

1

3

0.333333

49

0.6648

Tri-Jur

Wu & Chatterjee (1993, fig. 21 rev.)

Crocodylomorpha(4)

10

366

364

160

726

0.546448

2.75

4

0.5

14

0.63958

Tri-Cret

Wu et al. (1994, fig. 10A)

Crocodylomorpha(5)

6

281

17

15

43

93.950178

8

2

0.5

100

0.928571

Tri-Jur

Sereno & Wild (1992, fig. 12A)

Crocodylomorpha(6)

7

295

58

15

58

80.338983

100

3

0.6

65.5

0

Tri-Jur

Sereno & Wild (1992, fig. 12B)

Crocodylomorpha(7)

31

1058

966

173

2114

8.695652

0.5

10

0.344828

70

0.591448

Tri-Rec

Wu et al. (1997, fig. 6)

Crocodylomorpha(7)

31

1058

1240

173

2114

-17.202268

0.5

7

0.241379

89.5

0.450283

Tri-Rec

Wu et al. (1997, fig. 7)

Crocodylomorpha(7)

31

1058

996

173

2114

5.860113

0.5

10

0.344828

68.5

0.575992

Tri-Rec

Wu et al. (1997, fig. 8)

Crocodylomorpha(8)

16

459

588

127

1316

-28.104575

7

4

0.285714

62.5

0.612279

Jur-Rec

Wu & Sues (1996, fig. 9)

Mesosuchia(1)

8

140

186

95

406

-32.857143

3

4

0.666667

4

0.707395

Jur-Paleoc

Gomani (1997, fig. 6A)

Mesosuchia(1)

8

140

142

95

406

-1.428571

3

5

0.833333

1.5

0.848875

Jur-Paleoc

Gomani (1997, fig. 6B)

Mesosuchia(2)

10

194

208

95

468

-7.216495

3

4

0.5

11.5

0.697051

Jur-Paleoc

Gomani (1997, fig. 6C)

Mesosuchia(3)

8

239

191

75

299

20.083682

17

2

0.333333

100

0.482143

Cret-Eoc

Gasparini et al. (1991, fig. 7)

Mesosuchia-Atoposauridae

4

28

9

9

18

67.857143

30.5

1

0.5

100

1

Jur-Cret

Buscalioni & Sanz (1990, fig. 10A)

Mesosuchia-Atoposauridae

4

28

18

9

18

35.714286

100

0

0

100

0

Jur-Cret

Buscalioni & Sanz (1990, fig. 10B)

Neosuchia

7

330

212

92

298

35.757576

16

2

0.4

33.5

0.41748

Jur-Cret

Wu & Brinkman (1993, fig. 10)

Eusuchia(1)

16

157

593

132

1276

-277.70701

21

7

0.5

16

0.597028

Cret-Rec

Wu et al. (1996, fig. 4)

Eusuchia(2)

61

444

825

196

9674

-85.810811

21

41

0.694915

16

0.933636

Jur-Rec

Brochu (1997, fig. 8)

Eusuchia(3)

62

492

843

196

9787

-71.341463

21

41

0.683333

16

0.932541

Jur-Rec

Brochu (1997, fig. 9)

Eusuchia-Alligatoridae

8

87

275

157

663

-216.09195

8.5

3

0.5

36

0.766798

Jur-Rec

Williamson (1996, fig. 10)

Ornithodira(1)

10

792

22

17

47

97.222222

5

7

0.875

5.5

0.833333

Tri

Novas (1996, fig. 10)

Dinosauriformes(1)

5

431

5

5

15

98.839907

12

3

1

12

1

Tri

Novas (1992, fig. 6)

Dinosauria

31

1709

825

150

2184

51.726156

0.5

20

0.689655

5.5

0.66814

Tri-Cret

Benton (1990, fig. 1.5)

Theropoda(1)

9

468

323

154

881

30.982906

3.75

3

0.428571

3.25

0.76754

Tri-Cret

Gauthier (1986, fig. 9)

Theropoda(2)

7

505

279

150

683

44.752475

6

2

0.4

16.5

0.75797

Tri-Cret

Benton (1990, fig. 1.5)

Theropoda(3)

15

585

456

154

1565

22.051282

0.25

8

0.615385

0.75

0.78597

Tri-Cret

Holtz (1994, fig. 9A)

Theropoda(4)

15

585

340

154

1565

41.880342

0.25

7

0.538462

1.5

0.86818

Tri-Cret

Holtz (1994, fig. 9B)

Theropoda(5)

7

254

165

74

377

35.03937

24

2

0.4

47.5

0.69967

Jur-Cret

Sues (1997, fig. 11)

Theropoda-Coelurosauria(1)

8

334

252

69

314

24.550898

50

1

0.166667

73.5

0.253061

Jur-Cret

Novas (1997, fig. 32A)

Theropoda-Coelurosauria(1)

8

334

218

69

314

34.730539

41

2

0.333333

65.5

0.391837

Jur-Cret

Novas (1997, fig. 32B)

Theropoda-Carnosauria

7

127

124

87

227

2.362205

2

4

0.8

2

0.73571

Jur-Cret

Molnar et al. (1990, fig. 6.13)

Theropoda-Ceratosauria

7

89

234

82

234

-162.92135

100

0

0

100

0

Tri-Jur

Rowe & Gauthier (1990, fig. 5.1)

Thero.-Ornithomimosauria

8

120

81

81

458

32.5

0.75

5

0.833333

0.75

1

Cret

Barsbold & Osmólska (1990, fig. 8.10)

Aves(1)

23

1069

436

129

2147

59.214219

9.25

9

0.428571

1.5

0.84787

Jur-Neog

Cracraft (1988, fig. 9.1)

Aves(2)

6

200

94

48

186

53

20

2

0.5

21.75

0.66667

Cret

Chiappe & Calvo (1994, fig. 9)

Aves(3)

6

402

147

147

561

63.432836

0.5

4

1

0.5

1

Tri-Cret

Sanz & Buscalioni (1992, fig. 9)

Aves(4)

8

469

167

147

791

64.392324

0.5

5

0.833333

0.5

0.968944

Tri-Cret

Sanz & Buscalioni (1992, fig. 10A)

Aves(4)

8

469

147

147

791

68.656716

0.5

6

1

0.5

1

Tri-Cret

Sanz & Buscalioni (1992, fig. 10B)

Enantiornithes

6

46

51

14

61

-10.869565

58.25

1

0.25

65.75

0.21277

Cret

Varicchio & Chiappe (1995, fig. 2)

Anseriformes-Anatidae

6

10

50

10

50

-400

100

0

0

100

0

Mioc-Rec

Livezey & Martin (1988, fig. 10)

Ciconiiformes-Vulturidae

9

68

54

50

382

20.588235

0.5

4

0.571429

14.5

0.987952

Eoc-Rec

Emslie (1988, fig. 10)

Sauropodomorpha

8

472

132

82

364

72.033898

1

4

0.666667

1.25

0.8227

Tri-Jur

Benton (1990, fig. 1.5)

Prosauropoda

12

138

99

41

219

28.26087

10.75

7

0.7

8

0.67416

Tri-Jur

Galton (1990, fig. 15.9)

Sauropoda

13

220

139

55

611

36.818182

4.25

7

0.636364

9

0.84892

Jur

McIntosh (1990, fig. 16.20)

Ornithischia(1)

18

750

374

136

1402

50.133333

16

10

0.625

0.25

0.81201

Jur-Cret

Sereno (1984, fig. 1)

Ornithischia(2)

11

634

240

113

486

62.14511

1.5

8

0.888889

0.25

0.65952

Jur-Cret

Cooper (1995; in Benton 1990, fig. 1.6b)

Ornithischia(3)

6

489

131

78

250

73.210634

8.75

2

0.5

24.25

0.69186

Jur-Cret

Maryanska & Osmólska (1985; in Benton 1990, fig. 1.6a)

Ornithischia(4)

11

646

240

113

486

62.848297

1.25

7

0.777778

0.5

0.65952

Jur-Cret

Sereno (1986; in Benton 1990, fig. 1.6d)

Ornithischia(5)

13

685

247

120

646

63.941606

1.25

9

0.818182

0.5

0.75855

Jur-Cret

Benton (1990, fig. 1.5)

Ornithischia(6)

6

237

90

86

198

62.025316

1.5

4

1

5.5

0.964286

Jur-Cret

Forster (1990, fig. 24)

Ornithopoda(1)

12

260

416

136

925

-60

14

4

0.4

68.5

0.64512

Jur-Cret

Norman (1984, fig. 7)

Ornithopoda(2)

7

281

100

78

231

64.412811

14

3

0.6

17.5

0.85621

Jur-Cret

Norman (1990, fig. 25.36)

Ornithopoda(3)

6

269

167

136

376

37.918216

3

2

0.5

28

0.870833

Jur-Cret

Coria & Salgado (1996, fig. 13)

Ornithopoda(4)

11

206

332

136

936

-61.165049

6

5

0.555556

16

0.755

Jur-Cret

Winkler et al. (1997, fig. 19A)

Ornithopoda(4)

11

206

332

136

936

-61.165049

3

5

0.555556

6

0.755

Jur-Cret

Winkler et al. (1997, fig. 19B)

Ornithopoda-Hadrosauridae(1)

14

173

102

67

749

41.040462

0.5

10

0.833333

1.5

0.94868

Cret

Weishampel et al. (1993, fig. 7)

Ornithopoda-Hadrosauridae(2)

7

108

25

25

128

76.851852

2

4

0.8

4.5

1

Cret

Head (1998, fig. 16)

Ornithopoda-Hadrosauridae(3)

17

215

106

23

239

50.697674

9.5

8

0.533333

55

0.61574

Cret

Weishampel & Horner (1990, fig. 26.12)

Ornithopoda-Hadrosauridae(4)

10

88

48

16

90

45.454545

61

5

0.625

60

0.56757

Cret

Weishampel & Horner (1990, fig. 26.12)

Ceratopsia(1)

10

142

55

41

299

61.267606

1.5

7

0.875

1

0.945736

Cret

Chinnery & Weishampel (1998, fig. 10)

Ceratopsia(2)

18

225

77

50

751

65.777778

1

13

0.8125

2.75

0.96148

Cret

Dodson & Currie (1990, fig. 29.9)

Ceratopsia-Centrosaurinae

6

72

9

9

36

87.5

7

3

0.75

41

1

Cret

Sampson (1995, fig. 9)

Ceratopsia-Triceratops

6

54

NAN(000)

0

0

100

100

4

1

100

NAN(000)

Cret

Forster (1996, fig. 5)

Pachycephalosauria

10

107

107

58

459

0

1

7

0.875

3

0.8778

Cret

Maryanska (1990, fig. 27.5)

Thyreophora(1)

6

278

111

49

155

60.071942

24

1

0.25

72

0.415094

Jur-Cret

Sereno & Dong (1992, fig. 14)

Ankylosauria(1)

9

175

135

123

832

22.857143

0.5

6

0.857143

1

0.983075

Jur-Cret

Lee (1996, fig. 14A)

Ankylosauria(1)

9

175

135

123

832

22.857143

0.5

6

0.857143

1

0.983075

Jur-Cret

Lee (1996, fig. 14B)

Ankylosauria

14

254

203

67

594

20.07874

1.5

8

0.666667

0.75

0.74193

Cret

Coombs & Maryanska (1990, fig. 22.14)

Sauropterygia(1)

5

394

109

86

220

72.335025

20.5

2

0.666667

27

0.828358

Tri-Jur

Brown & Cruickshank (1994, fig. 7)

Sauropterygia(2)

8

98

17

5

17

82.653061

100

4

0.666667

78.5

0

Tri

Rieppel & Werneburg (1998, fig. 5)

Sauropt.-Pachypleurosauria

9

30

1

1

4

96.666667

1

7

1

4

1

Tri

Rieppel (1998, fig. 7A)

Synapsida(1)

21

630

153

101

1174

75.714286

32

15

0.789474

74.25

0.95154

Carb-Tri

Kemp (1982, fig. 115)

Synapsida(2)

16

610

144

101

897

76.393443

1

12

0.857143

74.25

0.94598

Carb-Tri

Gauthier et al. (1988a, fig. 3)

Synapsida(3)

19

834

311

223

1577

62.709832

1

14

0.823529

74.25

0.93501

Carb-Cret

Rowe (1988, figs. 2, 3)

Synapsida(4)

15

1095

364

223

1935

66.757991

1

8

0.615385

74.25

0.91764

Carb-Cret

Desui (1991, fig. 1)

Synapsida(5)

22

451

374

101

1088

17.073171

1

15

0.714286

74.25

0.7234

Carb-Tri

Hopson (1991, figs. 7, 22, 32)

Synapsida(6)

13

562

107

61

462

80.960854

0.5

8

0.727273

97.5

0.885287

Carb-Perm

Modesto (1995, fig. 19A)

Synapsida(7)

14

485

144

101

699

70.309278

0.5

10

0.833333

97.5

0.928094

Carb-Tri

Rowe (1988, fig. 2)

Pelycosauria(1)

8

467

113

55

187

75.802998

8.5

4

0.666667

8.25

0.56061

Carb-Perm

Rowe (1986; in Hopson 1991, fig. 7)

Pelycosauria(2)

6

201

74

42

124

63.18408

9.25

2

0.5

55

0.60976

Carb-Perm

Rowe (1986; in Kemp 1988, fig. 1.2)

Pelycosauria(3)

11

264

85

56

261

67.80303

0.25

6

0.666667

4.5

0.85854

Carb-Perm

Laurin (1993, fig. 22)

Pelycosauria(4)

8

127

160

56

301

-25.984252

17.5

3

0.5

20.5

0.57551

Carb-Perm

Reisz et al. (1998, fig. 3)

Pelycosauria(5)

19

340

499

68

936

-46.764706

0.5

12

0.705882

97.5

0.503456

Carb-Perm

Reisz et al. (1998, fig. 4)

Pelycosauria(6)

8

158

135

51

212

14.556962

46.5

4

0.666667

9

0.478261

Carb-Perm

Modesto (1994, fig. 3)

Pelycosauria-Edaphosauridae

6

80

74

35

113

7.5

42.5

2

0.5

39

0.5

Carb-Perm

Modesto (1995, fig. 19B)

Therapsida(1)

16

497

53

46

164

89.336016

4

10

0.714286

25

0.94068

Perm-Tri

Hopson & Barghusen (1986, figs. 1, 12)

Therapsida(2)

6

332

7

6

8

97.891566

20.25

3

0.75

20.25

0.5

Perm

Rowe (1986, 1988; in Hopson 1991, fig. 21)

Therapsida(3)

6

332

7

6

8

97.891566

35.75

3

0.75

69

0.5

Perm

Kemp (1988, fig. 1.3)

Therapsida(4)

7

337

8

6

9

97.626113

27.75

3

0.6

25.75

0.33333

Perm

Hopson (1991, fig. 22)

Therapsida(5)

10

228

52

46

183

77.192982

27.75

6

0.75

0.25

0.9562

Perm-Tri

Luo & Crompton (1994, fig. 1A)

Therapsida(6)

10

228

52

46

183

77.192982

27.75

6

0.75

0.25

0.9562

Perm-Tri

Luo & Crompton (1994, fig. 1B)

Dinocephalia(1)

5

37

1

1

3

97.297297

8

2

0.666667

91

1

Perm

Rubidge (1991, fig. 4)

Dinocephalia-Anteosauridae

4

26

6

6

18

76.923077

18.5

2

1

18.5

1

Perm

Rubidge (1994, fig. 9)

Cynodontia(1)

11

106

24

9

39

77.358491

18.25

6

0.666667

20.75

0.5

Perm-Tri

Battail (1982; in Hopson 1991, fig. 30)

Cynodontia(2)

11

388

66

40

134

82.989691

1

6

0.666667

7.5

0.7234

Perm-Tri

Kemp (1988, fig. 1.4)

Cynodontia(3)

10

369

41

40

114

88.888889

1

6

0.75

2.25

0.98649

Perm-Tri

Hopson (1991, fig. 32)

Cynodontia(4)

12

561

387

135

572

31.016043

0.75

3

0.3

4.5

0.42334

Tri-Cret

Lucas & Luo (1993, fig. 14A)

Cynodontia(5)

12

561

487

135

572

13.190731

3

2

0.2

28.25

0.19451

Tri-Cret

Lucas & Luo (1993, fig. 14B)

Cynodontia(6)

10

285

42

35

134

85.263158

0.5

5

0.625

1.5

0.929293

Tri

Martinez et al. (1996, fig. 5)

Cynodontia(7)

8

591

150

150

580

74.619289

0.5

6

1

1.5

1

Tri-Cret

Wible (1991, fig. 3)

Cynodontia(8)

16

873

386

150

875

55.784651

0.5

7

0.5

1.5

0.674483

Tri-Cret

Wible (1991, fig. 4)

Cynodontia(9)

7

479

247

150

445

48.434238

0.5

5

1

0.5

0.671186

Tri-Cret

Rowe (1988, fig. 3)

Cynodontia(10)

9

715

174

146

608

75.664336

0.5

4

0.571429

3.5

0.939394

Tri-Cret

Rowe (1988, fig. 4)


References for cited cladograms

Refs-tetrapods

Barsbold, R. and Osmólska, H. (1990) Ornithomimosauria. In The Dinosauria, edited by D.B. Weishampel, P. Dodson, and H. Osmólska, pp. 225-244. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Benton, M. J. and Allen, J. L. 1997. Boreopricea from the Lower Triassic of Russia, and the relationships of the prolacertiform reptiles. Palaeontology, 40, 931-953.

Benton, M.J. (1985) Classification and phylogeny of the diapsid reptiles. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 84, 97-164.

Benton, M.J. (1990) Origin and interrelationships of dinosaurs. In The Dinosauria, edited by D.B. Weishampel, P. Dodson, and H. Osmólska, pp. 11-30. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Benton, M.J. (1991) Amniote phylogeny. In Origins of the Higher Groups of Tetrapods, edited by H.-P. Schultze and L. Trueb, pp. 317-330. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.

Benton, M.J. and Clark, J. (1988) Archosaur phylogeny and the relationships of the Crocodylia. In The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods. Volume 1. Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, edited by M.J. Benton. Systematics Association Special Volume, 35A, 289-332. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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